100 – Saint John, last of the Apostles, dies
107 – Saint Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch and disciple of the Apostles Peter and John, writes letters to various Christian communities
He writes of Christ’s divinity, the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, the virginity of Mary, the three-tiered hierarchy of bishops, presbyters, and deacons, and the primacy of the Church of Rome. We also find the first recorded use of the title “Catholic Church”:
ለኤፌሶን ደብዳቤ (virginity of Mary):
19:1 ማርያም "ድንግልና, እሷን በመስጠት የልደት, ጌታ ደግሞ ሞት, የዚህ ዓለም ገዥ ተደብቆ ነበር:-የተለመዱ ሚስጥሮች አዋጅ ነጋሪው, but wrought in the silence of God.”
ወደ Smyrnaeans ወደ ደብዳቤ (Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist; hierarchy; first use of title “Catholic Church”):
7:1 “Take note of those [ማለትም, the Docetists/Gnostics] who hold heterodox opinions on the grace of Jesus Christ which has come to us, እና ሃሳባቸውን የእግዚአብሔር አሳብ ምን ያህል በተቃራኒ ተመልከት. … They abstain from the Eucharist and from prayer, እነርሱ ቁርባን የአዳኛችን የኢየሱስ ክርስቶስ ሥጋ ነው የማይታመን ምክንያቱም, ለኃጢአታችን መከራን ሲሆን ይህም አብ የትኛው ሥጋ, ቸርነት ውስጥ, እንደገና አስነሣው. They who deny the gift of God are perishing in their disputes. It would be better for them to have love, so that they might rise again. …
8:1-2 “Flee from schism as the source of mischief. You should all follow the bishop as Jesus Christ did the Father. Follow, ደግሞ, the presbytery as you would the apostles; and respect the deacons as you would God’s law. Nobody must do anything that has to do with the Church without the bishop’s approval. You should regard that Eucharist as valid which is celebrated either by the bishop or by someone he authorizes [ማለትም, a presbyter]. Where the bishop is present, there let the congregation gather, just as where Jesus Christ is, የካቶሊክ ቤተ ክርስቲያን ነው. "
ለሮም ደብዳቤ (divinity of Christ; primacy of Church of Rome):
አድራሻ: “Ignatius, also called Theophorus, to the Church that has found mercy in the greatness of the Most High Father and in Jesus Christ, His only Son; to the Church beloved and enlightened after the love of Jesus Christ, አምላካችን, by the will of Him that has willed everything which is; to the Church also which holds the presidency, in the location of the country of the Romans, worthy of God, worthy of honor, worthy of blessing, worthy of praise, worthy of success, worthy of sanctification, ና, because you hold the presidency in love, named after Christ and named after the Father. ...
3:1 "አንተ ማንም ይቀኑበት አድርገዋል, ሌሎች ግን የተማርከው. I desire only that what you have enjoined in your instructions may remain in force.”
144 – Pope Saint Pius I condemns the teachings of Marcion
150 – Fresco in the Catacomb of Saint Priscilla in Rome depicts the Virgin Mary and the Christ Child with a figure believed to be the prophet Isaiah
150 – Hermas, brother of Pope Pius, writes of baptismal rebirth, ጋብቻ, and Penance (The Shepherd)
150 – Saint Justin the Martyr writes of the Holy Trinity, baptismal rebirth, የቁርባን መሥዋዕት, and Mary as the New Eve.
በመጀመሪያ አፖሎጂ (Holy Trinity; baptismal rebirth):
13 “We will prove that we worship Him reasonably; for we have learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, that He holds a second place, and the Spirit of prophecy a third. For this they accuse us of madness, saying that we attribute to a crucified man a place second to the unchangeable and eternal God, the Creator of all things: but they are ignorant of the mystery which lies therein. …
61 “As many as are persuaded and believe that what we teach and say is true, መሰረት መኖር መቻል ያካሂዳል, መጸለይ እና በጾም እግዚአብሔርን እለምን ዘንድ መመሪያ ነው, ባለፉት ናቸው ያላቸውን የኃጢአት ስርየት, በምንጸልይበት እና ከእነርሱ ጋር ጾምን. ውኃ በሌለበት ከዚያም በኛ አመጡ ናቸው, እኛ እራሳችንን መንጨተዋል ውስጥ በተመሳሳይ መልኩ ከተወለድን. ለ, የእግዚአብሔር ስም, የአጽናፈ ዓለሙ አባት እና ጌታ, and of our Savior Jesus Christ, እንዲሁም መንፈስ ቅዱስ (cf. ማቴ. 28:19), እነርሱም ከዚያ በውኃ መታጠብና ይቀበላል. ክርስቶስ ደግሞ አለ, 'በስተቀር ዳግም የተወለደ ነው, you cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven’ (ዮሐንስ 3:3)."
Dialogue with Trypho the Jew (Eucharistic Sacrifice; አዲስ ሔዋን እንደ ማርያም):
41 [Justin:] “‘Also, sirs,’ I said, ‘the offering of fine wheat flour which was prescribed to be offered on behalf of those cleansed of leprosy was a type of the Bread of the Eucharist, the celebration of which our Lord Jesus Christ prescribed in memory of the passion He suffered on behalf of those men who are cleansed in their souls of every evil. … Moreover, as I said before, concerning the sacrifices which you at that time offered, God speaks through Malachias, ከአሥራ ሁለቱ አንዱ [lesser prophets], እንደሚከተለው: “I have no pleasure in you, ይላል ጌታ; and I will not accept your sacrifices from your hands; for from the rising of the sun until its setting, my name has been glorified among the gentiles; and in every place incense is offered in my name, and a clean offering: for great is my name among the gentiles, ይላል ጌታ; but you profane it” (Mal. 1:10-12). It is of the sacrifices offered to Him in every place by us, the gentiles, ያውና, of the Bread of the Eucharist and likewise of the cup of the Eucharist, that He speaks at that time; and He says that we glorify His name, while you profane it. …
100 [Justin:] “‘[የሱስ] became Man by the Virgin so that the course which was taken by disobedience in the beginning through the agency of the serpent, might be also the very course by which it would be put down. For Eve, a virgin and undefiled, conceived the word of the serpent, and bore disobedience and death. But the Virgin Mary received faith and joy when the angel Gabriel announced to her the glad tidings that the Spirit of the Lord would come upon her and the power of the Most High would overshadow her, for which reason the Holy One being born of her is the Son of God. And she replied: "ፈቃድህ ቃል መሠረት ወደ እኔ መደረግ" (ሉቃስ 1:38).’”