Holy Orders is a sacrament in which men are approved or “ordained” by the Church to perform the other six آیینهای کلیسا. The men may be deacons, priests or bishops.
اما, the sacrament of Holy Orders is performed only by bishops, and that follows directly from the Bible.
There is an established way in Scripture in which God’s call to the ministry is given and received. It flows from God to Jesus, from Jesus to the Apostles, and from the Apostles to their successors (دیدن انجیل لوقا 10:16 و انجیل یوحنا 13:20; 20:21). بنابراین, the sacrament of Holy Orders can be performed only by an Apostle or only by one on whom apostolic authority has been conferred. برای مثال, Paul writes in his نامه اول به تیموتائوس (4:14), “Do not neglect the gift you have, which was given you by prophetic utterance when the council of elders laid their hands upon you” (دیدن 5:22, خود نامه دوم به تیموتائوس, 1:6, و او نامه به تیتوس 1:5). بنابراین, the sacrament follows an unbroken chain from Jesus to today’s newest Catholic priest. (More on this below.)
In the early Church, a hierarchy developed that consisted of bishops, presbyters (or elders), and deacons, which corresponded to Israel’s three-tiered structure of high priest, کشیش, and Levites (دیدن پل نامه به Phillipians, 1:1; سنت جیمز’ Epistle, 5:14; سفر اعداد،, 32; The Second Book of Chronicles 31:9-10).1 در اسرائیل, the priest was seen as God’s unique emissary (دیدن نام یکی از کتب عهد عتیق 2:7), being set apart from the assembly by an anointing and the imposition of hands (دیدن مهاجرت دسته جمعی 30:30 یا سفر تثنیه 34:9).
Given that the Apostles were Jews, the Church adopted these Jewish customs for her rite of ordination.
Aren’t We all Priests?
هیچ, but sometimes people are confused by the Bible’s message that all believers are called to share in Christ’s priesthood. برای مثال, Saint Peter’s نامه اول (2:9) ایالت ها, “You are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s own people.” These words are a reference back to مهاجرت دسته جمعی 19:6, “You shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”
Reserving the authority to perform sacraments to a special group of individuals (کشیش) is known as sacerdotalism.
In the Old Covenant, a smaller, sacerdotal priesthood existed within the larger priestly nation of Israel. همانطور که ما توضیح, it is the same in the New Covenant.
The Bible reveals the sacerdotal priesthood to be a kind of spiritual fatherhood, which is why the Catholic Church teaches that priestly ordination is reserved for men alone. برای مثال, in the Old Testament, the کتاب داوران (18:19) ایالت ها: “با ما بیا, and be to us a father and a priest.”
به همین ترتیب, در عهد جدید, Paul writes in his نامه اول به قرنتیان (4:15) که “For though you have countless guides in Christ, شما بسیاری از پدران ندارد. For I became your father in Christ Jesus through the Gospel.” Paul elaborates more on this spiritual fatherhood or sacerdotal priesthood at the start of that same chapter, when he says, “This is how one should regard us, as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God” (4:1).2
At the start of His ministry, Jesus remarked that the crowds resembled “sheep without a shepherd,” گفت, “The harvest is plentiful, اما کارگران در چند; pray therefore the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into his harvest” (دیدن متی 9:36, 37-38). These remarks preface His selection of the Twelve Apostles, whom He empowered and sent out as His vicarious shepherds over the faithful (دیدن انجیل یوحنا 21:15-17; the اعمال رسولان 20:28; و پیتر نامه اول 5:2). “You did not choose me,” He later reminded them, “but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit” (جان 15:16). “How can men preach unless they are sent?” writes Paul in his رساله به رومیان, 10:15.
Nowhere in Scripture does a man assume the ministry for himself. “One does not take the honor upon himself, but is called by God, فقط به عنوان هارون بود,” write Paul in his نامه به عبرانیان 5:4 (دیدن او نامه به کولسیان 1:25, همچنین). When certain Jewish exorcists attempt to rebuke evil spirits “by the Jesus whom Paul preaches,” the spirits reply, “Jesus I know, و پل من می دانم; but who are you?” (اعمال رسولان, 19:13, 15).
بنابراین, a valid call to the ministry ordinarily involves the confirmation of the apostolic hierarchy. برای مثال, در Act of the Apostles (1:15), Matthias does not stand up and take his ministerial office by his own volition. He is elected according to the authority of Peter and the Apostles, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Neither does Paul, in spite of his dramatic conversion, set off on his own to preach the Gospel, claiming God’s anointing for himself. As mentioned in his نامه به غلاطیان (1:18), he goes first to Jerusalem to receive the approval of the Apostles, and later he returns to verify the gospel he is preaching is correct (2:2).
While all Christians are called to evangelize, the Apostles and their successors have the unique call of safeguarding the Deposit of Faith and teaching the faithful. در انجیل متی (28:19-20) Jesus says to the Apostles, “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.”
به همین ترتیب, در خود نامه دوم به تیموتائوس, Paul instructs: “Guard the truth that has been entrusted to you by the Holy Spirit who dwells within us,… What you have heard from me before many witnesses entrust to faithful men who will be able to teach others also.” (آیات را ببینید 1:14; 2:2; 1:13; و اعمال رسولان 2:42).
در واقع, when His ministers teach it is Christ Himself who teaches through them as He said: “He who hears you hears me, and he who rejects you, rejects me, and he who rejects me rejects him who sent me” (لوقا 10:16). Elsewhere He declares, “واقعا, براستی, من به شما می گویم, he who receives any one whom I send من دریافت; and he who receives me receives him who sent me” (جان 13:20; تأکید اضافه شده است).
The Apostles are given the authority of presiding over the Eucharistic celebration. برای مثال, while instituting the Eucharist at the Last Supper, He bids them, “Do this in remembrance of me” (لوقا 22:19 and Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians, 11:23-24). The Apostles receive a unique share in His priesthood and with it the chief duty of offering the Eucharistic Sacrifice on behalf of the faithful (CF. آیا. 5:1).3
The Apostles also receive from Jesus the power to forgive sins through the gift of the keys given to Peter and the authority to” اتصال و شل” conferred on them as a group (CF. مت. 16:19; 18:18). “به عنوان پدر مرا فرستاد,” the Savior tells them, “با این حال I send you. … Receive the Holy Spirit. اگر از گناهان هر ببخش, آنها را ببخشند; اگر شما گناهان هر حفظ, they are retained” (جان 20:21-23; تأکید اضافه شده است).
- Though the fullness of the apostolic office with all its prerogatives was not passed down, the bishops, as direct successors to the Apostles, remained at the head of the hierarchy. ↩
- The word “mystery,” در یونانی, mysterion, is translated in Latin as sacramentum یا “sacrament.” The Greek Orthodox continue to this day to refer to the Sacraments as the sacred “Mysteries.” ↩
- The Biblical view of the Eucharist as a Sacrifice (CF. Mal. 1:11; 1 رنگ. 10:1-5, 15-22; 11:23-30; آیا. 10:25-26), در حقیقت, further points to the existence of a sacerdotal priesthood–for the presence of a sacrifice necessitates a priesthood to offer it. پاپ کلمنت سنت, writing from Rome in about the year 96, clearly distinguished between the Eucharistic Sacrifice offered by the ministerial priesthood and the spiritual sacrifices offered by the priesthood of the laity (CF. Clement’s Letter to the Corinthians 40-41). Misunderstanding the Eucharistic Sacrifice, non-Catholics sometimes accuse Catholics of “re-sacrificing” Jesus at Mass. The Eucharistic Sacrifice is not a re-sacrificing, اما, but a re-presentation of the one Sacrifice of Calvary. Christ does not die again; His saving Flesh and Blood are made present on the altar under the appearances of Bread and Wine so that the faithful may “proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes” as Paul wrote in his نامه اول به قرنتیان (11:26). ↩