M ganewa

... Maryam, ba Yesu!

Image of the Birth of the Virgin by Paolo Venezianomutane da yawa, ciki har da mutane da yawa Katolika, ayan kuskuren cikin m ganewa domin ɗaukar cikin Yesu a Maria mahaifa.

Duk da haka, da "m ganewa" yana nufin da ɗaukar Maryamu, ba Yesu.

The Catholic Church professes cewa, Maryamu ce kullum suna cikinsa–cewa ta musamman alheri daga Allah, ta "kiyaye free daga dukan tabo asalin zunubi" daga na farko lokacin da ta zama (Paparoma Pius IX, ineffable Allah). Wannan shi ne ba sosai a dole bukata kamar yadda yake a cancantar a cikin haske ta musamman kira zuwa kai Ɗan Allah ne. Don haka, mun ga Mary kamar yadda New Hauwa'u da kuma Akwatin alkawari New.

A bada haifi Yesu, Mary aikata abin da ba wani dabba ya taba yi. Ta "za'ayi Ɗa,"Ya rubuta Saint Clare na Assisi ya taba (d. 1253), "Wa sammai ba su iya dauke; kuma duk da haka sai ta dauki Shi a cikin kadan yadi ta m mahaifar da kuma gudanar da shi a kan ta virginal gwiwa " (Na uku Letter to Albarka ta tabbata Agnes na Prague).

Allah zai zaba mai zunubi ya zama uwar Ɗansa? A, idan Ya so, Ya zai iya samun. Amma shi ne kawai ya dace da Ya zaɓi mafi-tsarki budurwa.

Image of The Nativity by Gentile da FabrianGaske, cikin m ganewa koya mana game da Yesu, tsantsan kamar yadda ya aikata da unfathomable halattar. Lalle ne, Maria tsarki nuna kai tsaye ga tsarkin danta, wanda yake haka tsarki, wanda zai iya kawai ba tunanin Shi ake yi na zunubi jiki.

Wasu sau da yawa rashin amincewa da cewa m ganewa ba a samu a cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki.

Gaskiya ne cewa da kalmar, "M ganewa,"Ba a samu a cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki, kuma shi ne ma gaskiya cewa Littafi Mai Tsarki babu inda ya furta, "Maryamu da aka ɗauki cikinsa ba tare da zunubi." Amma sai, da kalmar "Triniti Mai Tsarki" ba a samu a cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki ko dai. Kuma ba ya aikata Littafi Mai Tsarki jihar, "Akwai daya Allah na gaskiya, kunsha na uku dawwamammu mutane. "1

Duk da haka, rukunan cikin m ganewa iya nuna ya zama wani ingantaccen koyarwar Littafi Mai Tsarki.

Maria sinlessness ne karfi da girman, Alal misali, a Allah zargi da macijin nan a Farawa 3:15, "Zan sa ƙiyayya tsakaninka da matar, da kuma tsakanin zuriyarka da zuriyarta; Zai uje kanka, kuma ku uje diddigensa. "Ga allahntaka shirin da aka yi wahayi da a maido da mutum auku dangantaka da Allah, kawo a kan ta Adamu da Hauwa'u ta qetare. A cewar wannan shiri, da mace da kuma Seed ne da za a kafa baya daga sauran Adamu da Hauwa'u ta auku zuriyarsa-ya zama rigakafi ga la'anar asali zunubi, wadda zã gyara. The rigakafi na Woman da Her Seed ne na nuni da "adãwa" wanda Allah ya yi alkawarin sanya a tsakãninsu da maciji da macijin zuriyar, ko a cikin wasu kalmomi a tsakãninsu da zunubi.

The Seed na Woman, i mana, Yesu. The Woman an fassara alamance zama 'yar Sihiyona, wata alama ce da Urushalima (gani Ishaya 37:22). Amma, a zahiri, Christological ji, i mana, ta dole har da Virgin Mary, da mai bãyar da karbar tuba.

Image of Annunciation by Gentile da Fabriano

The tsoho Kirista girmama m kuma na musamman halattar da Virgin Mary, abin da suka yi magana da ko da yaushe a kusa jam'iyya da halattar da danta. Misali, a game da 170, Saint Melito na Sardisu ce Yesu, da m Rago, "An haife Maryama, da gaskiya tunkiya,"Yana ambaton ta spotlessness da (Easter homily).

Saint Hippolytus na Roma (d. 235) ake magana a kai ta a matsayin "m, kuma Allah-hali Mary;"Kuma, kwatanta ta da katako amfani da su yi da akwatin alkawarin, kira ta "ba mai sãkẽwa ba" (Lãbãri a kan Qarshen Duniya 1; Sharhin a Zabura 22; Theodoret na Cyr, First tattaunawa).

A A karkashin Ka, addu'a Dating daga tsakiyar karni na uku, kira Maryamu "kadai tsarki da kuma kadai albarka." Saint Ifraimu Syria (d. 373) ya ce Almasihu, "Kai kaɗai, kuma ka Mother ne mafi kyau fiye da kowane wasu; Domin babu wani aibi a kai, kuma bãbu wani stains a kan Mother " (The Nisibene waka 27:8).

Saint Ambrose na Milan (d. 397) kira Our Lady "a Virgin ba kawai marar aibu amma a Virgin wanda alheri ya haramta, free kowane tabo zunubi " (Sharhin a Zabura 118 22:30).

Tsantsan da cewa mai tsarki maza da mata a cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki, duk da girma da taƙawa, sun kasance mãsu, Saint Augustine na Hippo (d. 430) sanya wani banda for Mary, "Bisa wanda, a kan asusun da girmamawa ga Ubangiji, Ina so ne in babu albarkacin tambaya a lõkacin zalunta zunubai,-for yaya muka san abin da yalwa da alheri ga total rinjãyarsu zunubin da aka ni'imtar da ita a kan, wanda merited to juna biyu ta kuma haifi shi a wanda babu zunubi?" (Nature da Grace 36:42).

Wasu daga cikin tsoho Church marubuta ba da damar domin da yiwuwar cewa Mary yi zunubi. Tertullian da Origen kasance farko da ɗaure wannan ra'ayi a rubuce (cf. Tertullian, Naman Almasihu 7; da Marcion 4; Source, Homilies on Luka 17).

Basira daga Wedding a Kan'ana

Wasu zai kuma dunƙule Saint Irenaeus a tare Tertullian da Origen saboda comment game da ita a Wedding idin a Cana (John 2:1). Ya rubuta cewa Mary, "Son da lokacin da za a ci na kofin emblematic muhimmanci,"Shi ne" rajistan(ed)"By Yesu domin ta" untimely sauri " (Heresies 3:16:7). Duk da haka, mala cewa Irenaeus ĩmãni Mary ya yi zunubi zai zama presumptuous. Irenaeus bai nuna wani lalata muradi a kan ta part ko hali da Allah. Idan ta muradi a so ganin danta wahayi zuwa duniya ya soyayya a gare shi, sa'an nan ta "sauri" shi shiryayyu, amma ba zunubi. (Da bambanci, a cikin Homily a John 21:2, Saint John Chrysostom shawara Maria muradi ya girman kai, wanda, Lalle ne, zai zama zunubi.)

Don tabbatar da, Maria m halattar ba nufa cewa ta daidai fahimci Her Ɗan, amma cewa ta daidai biyayya gare Shi, kuma Ubansa, kuma muna ganin wannan a Cana, musamman (ga John 2:5).

Game da ita "wazo,"Severus Antakiya (d. 538) lura, "Ta ba Distance kanta daga gare shi kõ kuwa ka bar, a cikin irin mutum wanda ya karbi yanka magana; ba shi ne ta yi shiru, tuba ta wazo, kamar yadda ya faru da mutum, wanda aka zargi " (Homily 199).

Muhawara a tsakanin Katolika

Duk da heterodox status, wadannan marubuta gudanar da wani in yi ta fama da tauhidin tunani na ƙarshe. Origen tasirin musamman ya shahararren daga Fathers gabas, Saints Basil Mai girma (d. 379), John Chrysostom (d. 407), Cyril na Alexandria (d. 444), da sauransu.

Anti-Katolika sun yi yawa daga wannan al'amari,amma gaskiya ne shi ya kasance kullum halatta ga mai aminci ga tambayar koyarwa da ba tukuna dogmatically tsare.2

Paparoma Sixtus IV tabbacin yadda marigayi as 1483 cewa game da m ganewa, shi ne halatta ga Katolika ko dai su amince ko ƙin wannan koyarwa "tun da al'amarin ya ba an hukunta matsayin yet da Roman Katolika da Apostolic See" (kuma nauyi).

A da wannan a cikin zamanin da Manzanni. A sosai cewa "ya kasance da yawa muhawara" daga cikin wadanda suka taru a majalisar Urushalima ya tabbatar da bambancin ra'ayi wanzu a cikin Church matsayi a kan wani muhimmin batu (ga Ayyukan Manzanni, 15:7).

Da zarar kwayoyin halitta aka yanke shawarar, duk da haka, dukan muhawara daina kuma babu kara fitina da aka jure (gani 15:12, 28). Bugu da ƙari, yayin da wasu daga cikin farkon Fathers ƙaryata Maria sinlessness, matsayi ya da nisa daga sunyi baki daya. Mutane da yawa daga cikin Fathers tabbacin ta impeccable halattar, kamar yadda ya nuna a cikin rubuce-rubucen da likitoci kamar Saints Athanasius, Ambrose, Augustine, da sauransu. Imani Maria sinlessness wanzu a farkon Church, a gabas da yamma; kuma a lokacin da imani cewa ta ba aikata zunubi na kowane irin cikin ta rayuwa superseded dukan ra'ayoyin da aka ga m.

A da shi da kyau kamata a lura cewa babu wani abu a Church koyarwar cewa ya furta cewa, a lokacin formative matakai na a akidarsu waɗanda suka yi ĩmãni da gaskiya da za su kasance nan da nan nasara ko ma samu kansu a cikin mafi yawan. Take misali na Church ta yaƙi da mabiya Arius, suka ƙaryata game da allahntakar Almasihu. José Orlandis tuno yadda Arius 'heresy bai bace tare da kusa da majalisar Nicaea amma girma a cikin tasiri ga zance da cewa "duba, kamar dai Arianism aka je fi. A mafi fice na Nisaya bishops aka kõre da, kamar yadda St Jerome graphically sa shi, 'Dukan duniya groaned kuma gano ta zuwa ga mamaki cewa shi ya zama Arian' " (A Short History of cocin Katolika, Four Kotunan Press Limited, p. 39; Jerome, Tattaunawa Tsakanin a Luciferian kuma an Orthodox Kirista 19).

Masana sun tambaye ko Fathers suka professed da Virgin ta halattar da gaske ĩmãni ta kasance free daga asali zunubi kazalika sirri zunubai. The m ka'idar lokaci, a kalla a cikin West, An cewa zunubin Adamu da Hauwa'u aka ruwaito daga iyayen ta concupiscence a sadu. Wannan yana nufin cewa Yesu ne kawai, wanda shi kadai aka ɗauki cikinsa ba tare da ma'amala, zai iya tsere asali zunubi. Ko da ta yaya asali zunubi ne daukar kwayar cutar, duk da haka, Gaskiyar shine banda zai ya ga an yi a Maria harka ta ga an kare daga gare ta. Augustine ya bayyana a fili cewa wani ban da aka yi mata (kuma domin ta kadai), ko bai bayyana a lokacin da da kuma yaya wannan ya faru (gani Nature da Grace 36:42, sama).

The m ganewa ba dogmatically tsare har zuwa tsakiyar karni na sha tara. Ya kamata a ce ta hanyar kwatanta, duk da haka, cewa allahntakar Almasihu ba dogmatically tsare har sai 325 (Majalisar Nicaea); Allahntakar Ruhu Mai Tsarki, 381 (Majalisar Konstantinoful); da yanayi biyu a cikin Kristi, 451 (Council of Chalcedon); Biyu so a cikin Kristi, 681 (Na uku Council of Konstantinoful); da Canon na Littafi Mai Tsarki, 1441 (Council of Florence). Kowace daga cikin wadannan koyarwar, kamar m ganewa, ya ko da yaushe aka yi ĩmãni da Church, ko da yake ba a hukumance ayyana har ya zama wajibi (ko amfani) yin haka. Da ban da a gwada 'yan mutane a kan hanya na shekara dubu biyu, Maria sinlessness ya taba a cikin shakka. Shi ne kawai da tambayoyi na a lokacin da da kuma yaya Allah ya kawo game da wannan mu'ujiza da ya matuƙar warware.

Ko da yake duk na manyan damuwa game da m ganewa aka isasshe jawabi da marigayi tsakiyar zamanai, a yaudarar definition ba zai zo ga mutane da yawa more ƙarni. The saba impetus ga yaudarar jawabi ne da bukatar counter karkata koyarwar endangering cohesiveness na mũminai. Wannan ba haka al'amarin da m ganewa, duk da haka, kamar yadda duniya yarjejeniya ya dade tun da aka kai a cikin zukatanku da tunaninku cikin aminci. Amma duk da haka, ji da halin kirki da kuma ruhaniya cin hanci da rashawa da zamani zai saki gagarumin kan jama'a, Church of tsakiyar karni na sha tara ga tabbatar da cikakken halattar da Uwar Allah a matsayin ma'ana da amfani ga Kiristoci.

biyayya

Masu daga cikin m ganewa so wani sau birnin musamman ayoyin Littafi Mai Tsarki cewa ze rage Maria ruwan tekun Atlantika tsarki. Wata irin wannan aya shi ne Luka 8:21, a cikin abin da, bisa ake gaya cewa mahaifiyarsa, da 'yan'uwansa sun zo duba shi, Yesu jawabinsa, "Mahaifiyata da 'yan'uwana ne waɗanda suka ji Maganar Allah, kuma suka aikata shi." Saint Ambrose ya ce wannan aya, "The Mother ba ƙaryata-matsayin wani Litattafansu zai artfully yi waje-ga ta yarda har daga Cross (gani John 19:26-27). Ã'a, fĩfĩta waɗansu a kan dangantaka nama ne da aka ba da wani irin dangantaka wanda aka wajabta daga sama " (Sharhin a cikin Bisharar Luka 6:38).

A irin wannan nassi, samu a cikin goma sha ɗaya babi na Luka, wata mace a taron kira ga Yesu, "Albarka ta tabbata ga mahaifa da ta haifa ka, kuma zukata da ka sucked!"; to wanda ya amsa, "Albarka ta tabbata ga m ne waɗanda suka ji Maganar Allah, da kuma ci gaba da shi!" (11:27-28). Waɗannan kalmomi, ko da yake, ne kai tsaye tunani Mary.

Tun da farko a wannan Bishara, Elizabeth gaya mata, "Albarka tā tabbata ga wadda ta gaskata, cewa akwai zai zama cikar abin da aka aiko a faɗa mata daga Ubangijin" (Luka 1:45). Ta kamar yadda ya ce, "Albarka tā tabbata gare ku a cikin mata, kuma mai albarka ne 'ya'yan itace na mahaifa!" (1:42). Kuma Mary kanta exclaims, "Ga shi, gaba dukan zamanai, Za kira ni mai albarka " (1:48). Yesu, to,, ba husũma mahaifiyarsa albarka, amma ayoyi da dalilin da ya sa ta ne don haka mai albarka: biyayyar da ta yi maganar Allah. Saboda haka, a duka Luka 8:21 da kuma 11:28, ambaci daga Uwar tilasta Ubangiji ya yabe waɗanda suka ji kuma ci gaba da Maganar Allah.

Babu Original Zunubi

Watakila ayar Littafi Mai Tsarki da wadanda ba Katolika yi imani da mafi tsaye ta rushe m ganewa ne a Saint Paul ta Wasika zuwa ga Romawa 3:23, "Dukan mutane sun yi zunubi da kuma fada takaice daga cikin ɗaukakar Allah" (gani Yahaya First Letter, 1:8 & 10, ma).

Suka fassara wannan general bayani game da 'yan adam a cikin wani cikakkar ma'ana da ma'anar kowane guda mutum ya yi zunubi. Amma duk da haka abin da na mutane irin su jarirai da tunani da rashin lafiya, suke m na laifuffukansu? Mary ne kawai wani banda.

Image of the Marriage of the Virgin by Paolo VenezianoAbin da gaske bukatar a bayyana shi ne cewa Maria tsarkakewa bai faruwa baya daga Kubuta. Don Sabanin, ta kuma ya zo karkashin la'anar asali zunubi, ko ta kare daga zuba son ta Allah ya shiga tsakani. A saka shi wani hanya, ya ta kasance invulnerable to asali zunubi da yanayi-matsayin kawai Her Ɗan-to m ganewa, Allah musamman baki ta madadin, dã ba su kasance wajibi.

Mary kanta tabbatar ta bukatar wani mai ceto a cikin Luka 1:47. ineffable Allah kamar yadda ya sa ya bayyana a fili cewa ta kiyaye daga tabo asali zunubi "by a mufuradi alheri da gata ba da Allah Mai Iko Dukka, a cikin ra'ayi na isa yabo na Yesu Kristi, Mai Ceton 'yan adam " (girmamawa kara da cewa). A Maria yanayin da isa yabo na akan aka amfani gaba da lokaci, da ke, a jira danta mutuwar. Allah ya cece Sauran 'yan adam da kiwon shi a bãyan ya auku; Ya tsãmar da Mary da hana ta daga fadowa da fari. The m hanya a cikin abin da ta ceto sanya Mary more, ba kasa, gode mata, ga Allah fiye da sauran 'yan Adam.

Wani lokaci, a tattauna cikin m ganewa, tambaya na ko Mary sha wahala jin zafi a haihuwa ne ya tashe. Akwai wani tsoho imani cewa ta ba, lalle ne sadar da Almasihu Child ba tare da jin zafi, yana ambaton ta Ban daga Hauwa'u ta azãba da zãlunci (gani Farawa 3:16).

A lokaci guda, yana yiwuwa su yi tunanin Mary jimre naƙuda duk da ta sinlessness. Ka yi la'akari da related tambaya ko ba ta underwent halitta mutuwa, Har ila yau, wani ɓangare na Adamu da Hauwa'u ta azãba (gani Farawa 3:19 ko Bulus Wasika zuwa ga Romawa 6:23). The m yarjejeniya tsakanin Katolika masana tauhidi shi ne cewa Mary lalle mutu, domin daidai bi Her Ɗan. Idan ta ba a kare daga mutuwa, shi ya bi ta ba, an Ban daga sauran siffofin wahala domin wannan dalili. Gaskiya daga cikin m ganewa, Saboda haka, ba hinjis kan al'amari na Maria haihuwa mãyen ko rashin gare.

Image of The Nativity by Lorenzo VenezianoBa shi yiwuwa a shirya asirin Virgin ta ceto daga Littãfi kadai. Ishaya 66:7 jihohin, "Kafin ta kasance a cikin aiki da ta haife; da ta ciwo jẽ a kan ta, ta yi ta haife ɗa. "Irenaeus, daya, dauki wannan a matsayin hujja Mary ya cece ba tare da rauni (apostolic Wa'azi 54).

A wannan bangaren, da Littafin Ru'ya ta Yohanna, 12:2, ya ce Woman "ihu a cikin ta mãyen haihuwa, a baƙin ciki domin ceto. "Kamar Woman in Farawa 3:15, Katolika ayan fassara Woman a Ruya ta Yohanna 12 a cikin matuƙar ji kamar Mary. Wannan ba ya hana haihuwar mãyen ake gane warin, duk da haka. An nuna naƙuda wakilci Maria baƙin ciki, ba daga jiki haihuwar mai ceto a Baitalami, amma daga m haihuwar Church a akan (cf. Paparoma Pius X, Ad daman Illum; John 19:26-27) inda ta lẽƙe danta mutu.

Daya daga cikin na farko wadanda ba Littafi Mai Tsarki yayi magana akan Maria 'yanci daga jin zafi a haihuwa da aka samu a kan rubutun Afokirifa kira The Protoevangelium Yakubu, wanda aka m hada a kusa da tsakiyar karni na biyu. Saboda wannan aiki ta idon basira bayanin da haihuwar Yesu, jaddada corporeal yanayin da jiki ya zama (kamar yadda sun yi tsayayya da Hawan Yesu zuwa sama Ishaya, Alal misali, a cikin abin da Mary ne gaba daya m na ceto), an yi zaton The Protoevangelium Yakubu da aka rubuta don yaƙar gnostic Docetism, wanda kiyaye Almasihu jiki wani mafarki. Lalle ne waɗanda suka nan da nan hana tasiri da Afokirifa rubuce-rubucen domin suna ba wahayi zuwa gare texts kamata ya yi la'akari da cewa Saint Jude ya yi magana akan irin ayyukan biyu, Zato Musa da kuma Na farko Anuhu, a cikin Sabon Alkawari Wasika (gani Jude 1:9, 14).

Ko da yake m kamar yadda majiyoyin tauhidin, da Littafi Mai Tsarki ba ba da shaida a addini ideas da suke prevalent tsakanin Kirista a karni na fari. Suna sau da yawa da aka rubuta a kusa da ai gaskatawar Kirista, a gaskiya, wanda ya ba tukuna aka cikakken tsare da Church. Mutane da yawa imani game da albarka Virgin aka kafa a cikin irin wannan lissafin-wata kwarai, wasu ba, wasu daga Littãfi da alfarma Hadishi, wasu daga zukatan Litattafansu. Maria 'yanci daga aiki zafi, ya cigaba da, An tabbatar da farkon ai marubuta ya zamo kamar Irenaeus kuma Clement na Alexandria. A sosai cewa ta m bayarwa an ambaci da mũminai na bambance bambancen da tsoma-Orthodox da heterodox-da shawara da ra'ayin predates rubuce-rubucen; wanda aka ba mafarkin up da daga baya kungiyar amma sanar da Manzanni.

  1. Don gane da rukunan na Triniti daga Littãfi, Kiristoci sun kwatanta da kuma haɗa daban-daban Littafi Mai-Tsarki da koyarwar, kamar Ishaya 44:6, "Ni ne farko, kuma ni ne na karshe; kuma ni babu wani abin bautãwa;"tare da Matiyu 28:19: "Ku tafi, sabõda haka ku almajirtar da dukkan al'ummai, kuna yi musu baftisma da sunan Uba, da na Ɗa, da na Ruhu Mai Tsarki. "
  2. Da zarar wani koyarwa da aka tashi zuwa matakin a akidarsu shakka daga aminci ne ba ya halatta. An tarihi misali da wani Saint faruwa da wannan manufa zai zama cewa na Andrew na Crete, wanda, a Monothelite taron majalisar Krista na Konstantinoful a 712, musanta akwai biyu so a cikin mutum Almasihu, ko da yake wannan da aka dogmatically tsare a Uku Council of Konstantinoful a 681. Farga da kuskure, ya janye a shekara daga baya kuma Ya sanya wani sana'a bangaskiya da Monothelitism da sauran heresies.