Zato Maryama

Image na Mutuwa na Virgin da Duccio di Buoninsegna

Mutuwa na Virgin da Duccio di Buoninsegna

A ɗauka cewa shi ne imani cewa Mary, a ƙarshe ta duniya rai, da aka dauka jiki da kuma rai ya yi sama. An nuna a wasu sassa na Littafi, tabbas mafi yawan sama-sama a Saukar 12, da aka yi ĩmãni da Kiristoci na farko, kamar yadda aka nuna ta zamanin d liturgies da rubuce-rubucen. Zai yiwu mafi girma na tarihi hujja na ɗauka, ko da yake, shi ne gaskiya cewa babu mutum ko al'umma da ya taɓa da'awa mallaka Maria jiki.1 Wanda zai iya tabbata lalle ne, yana da jikin Mary, da nisa mafi tsarki ya tabbata daga Saints, zauna a cikin ƙasa, masu bin Almasihu dã ya kasance Masani game da shi.

Akwai faru da zama biyu daban-daban imani game da wurin Maryamu wucewa: daya nuna Urushalima; da sauran su Afisa. Na biyu, tsohon hadisin mazan da mafi alhẽri substantiated. Abin sha'awa isa, komai a, ƙarni na farko kabarin da aka gano a lokacin tono a kan shafin ta wucewa a Urushalima a 1972 (ga Bellarmino Bagatti, Michael Piccirillo, da kuma Albert Prodomo, O.F.M., New binciken a Kabarin na Virgin Mary, a Gatsemani, Urushalima: Francis Bugun Press, 1975). Wasu malamai sun yi shakka da amincin wannan kabarin tun lokacin da aka ba ake magana a kai ta farkon Ubanni suka rayu a Palestine, irin su Cyril Urushalima (d. 386), Epiphanius (d. 403), da kuma Jerome (d. 420). Amma, kamar yadda gine, Bellarmino Bagatti nuna, Mary kabarin da aka kullum kauce masa ta hanyar Kiristoci na farko na Al'ummai asalin domin shi ya tsaya a kan dũkiyar Judeo-Kiristoci, wanda “aka dauke schismatics idan ba Litattafansu” (ibid., p. 15). Saboda wannan dalili, wasu tsarki shafukan, irin su Upper Room, kada ku bayyana a farkon rubuce-rubucen ko dai (ibid.). Ya kamata a tuna da cewa, dakarun na Roman Janar Titus shãfe gani Urushalima a shekara ta 70, boye wuraren alfarma zuwa Yahudanci da Kiristanci ƙarƙashin kufai a karkara. A 135, da Sarkin sarakuna Hadrian leveled birnin sake tare da kar-manufar gina haikalin arna atop kango na mai tsarki shafukan. Da tabo Maryama ta wucewa da sauran wuraren alfarma zauna batattu har na huɗu karni a kalla a lokacin da Sarkin sarakuna Constantine Mai girma hankali ya fara mayar da Kiristanci ta Tsarki shafukan, lokacin da na fara da Ruhu Mai Sepulchre a 336.] A ɗauka cewa samar da wani misali da wani almajiri na Almasihu bin bayan gare Shi a cikin jiki tashin matattu, nuna gaskiyar abin da duk Kiristoci fatan. Kyakkyawan, shi attests ba mata tsarki, haka ma, amma ga tsarkinsa na Yesu, a kan wanda lissafi ta samu musamman fifita ta.

Duk da yake shi ya kullum aka yi ĩmãni da Kiristoci, ɗauka cewa an hukuma ayyana wani akidarsu na cocin Katolika daga Paparoma Pius XII a 1950. Lalle ne, haƙĩƙa wanda zai iya ganin Allah ƙauna hikima a tsantsan Maria jiki tashin matattu ga duniya a midpoint wani karni cewa halarta da yawa kabari rashin adalci da daraja ta mutum mutum. A lokacin da akidarsu ta shela, duniya da aka kunno kai daga munin na Nazi mutuwa sansanonin da gaggãwa gabatowa da jihar kariyar kisan da ba a haifa ba. A nobility na mace ita da shugaba sadaukarwa na mata sun musamman ma an kai hari ta hanyar zamani al'umma, wadda ta mayar da hankali inordinately a kanta na waje kyau kuma nemi abada don rage ta ta wani abu na muguwar sha'awa. A tana da yawa bambanta da wadannan sanar da da al'adun mutuwa, Mary ta ɗauka cewa ya furta da mutunci da womanhood da na jikin mutum, na mutum mutum, a cikin wani iko hanya.

Hawan Yesu zuwa sama na Virgin da Albrecht Bouts

Hawan Yesu zuwa sama na Virgin da Albrecht Bouts

Da akidarsu na ɗauka cewa yana kan Church ta ikon ciyar da Almasihu tumaki (cf. John 21:15-17; Luka 10:16) da Our mai ceto ta alkawari cewa ya Church zai koyar da gaskiya (cf. John 14:26; 16:13; Matt. 16:18-19; 1 Tim. 3:15). Wannan ma'asumi iko ko da yaushe aka dogara ga ALLAH na gaskiya koyarwar lõkacin rigingimu sun tashi daga aminci. Mun ga wannan a cikin kira na Majalisar Urushalima (Ayyukan Manzanni 15); a Bulus nẽman Manzanni’ yabo da ya wa'azi shekaru masu yawa bayan ya yi hira (Gal. 2:1-2); kuma a cikin irin wannan aiki na karshen Ecumenical majalisa, abin da ya yi kira a cikin Allahntakar Almasihu a 325, da Allahntakar Ruhu Mai Tsarki a 381, da Maryamu ta allahntaka na haihuwa a 431.

Theologically, ɗauka cewa an haɗa dangi da m ganewa, wanda ya furta cewa, Mary, da ta musamman falala daga Allah, An kare daga tabo na asali zunubi daga farko lokacin da ta zama. Ta 'yanci daga zunubi ne a fakaice a cikin alkawarin Allah a bisa Fall Mutum sanya kiyayya tsakanin shaidan da kuma cikin uwar karbar tuba (Gen. 3:15). Za a mayar da apostolic sau, Church ya girmama Mary matsayin New Hauwa'u, aminci helpmate na New Adam. Kamar dai yadda na farko da Hauwa'u yi ĩmãni da ƙarya shaidan, wani mala'ika ya auku, kuma da kãfirtarsu shirin Allah ya kawo zunubi da mutuwa cikin duniya; haka New Hauwa'u yi ĩmãni da gaskiyar Gabriel, an Shugaban Mala'iku, kuma da hada kai da shirin Allah ya kawo ceto da rai cikin duniya. A bimbinin Mary matsayin New Hauwa'u, haka ma, mu zo gane cewa a orchestrating mu fansa, Allah a cikin wani mamaki zahiri hanyar juyawa abubuwan da suka faru na mu fall. Asali, misali, Adam ya zo na farko; da Hauwa'u aka kafa daga naman. A cikin fansa, Mary, Sabon Hauwa'u, ya zo na farko; da kuma Almasihu, Sabon Adam, An kafa daga ta jiki. Haka kawai, wannan shi ne dalilin da ya sa a sabon alkawari da mace da namiji sun uwa da dan, ba maza kamar yadda Adamu da Hauwa'u suka kasance.

Cewa Mary mahaukaci Hauwa'u ta rashin laifi a gaban fall na nufin ta kasance wata ila kebe daga azãba: naƙuda take kama da jiki mutuwa (cf. Gen. 3:16, 19; Rom. 6:23). Ko da ba uzuri daga waɗannan abubuwa gaba ɗaya, duk da haka, shi ne ya dace a kalla cewa m dl aka bai ta a haihuwa da mutuwa.2

Coronation na Virgin da Al'ummai da Fabriano

Corontion na Virgin da Al'ummai da Fabriano

Kamar mafitar jikin tsarkaka bayan Crucifixion (cf. Matt. 27:52), ɗauka cewa akwai precursor zuwa ga jiki tashin aminci a Ranar Shari'a, a yaushe ne zã a “fyauce … a cikin girgije ka sadu da Ubangiji a cikin iska” (1 Thessalia. 4:17).3 Littafi Mai Tsarki bai hamayya da manufar wata jiki zato zuwa sama. A Littafi, Anuhu da Iliya ake dauka har jiki zuwa sama (cf. Gen. 5:24; 2 Sar. 2:11; Da. 11:5). Gaskiya ne cewa Littafi Mai Tsarki ba ya baro-baro bayyana cewa Mary aka zaci. Amma duk da haka da wannan alama, Littafi Mai Tsarki bai yi musu ba ko musanta ta ɗauka cewa.4 Haka ma, yayin kai tsaye sabõda da ɗauka cewa ba a samu a Littafi, shi dõmin a girman daga wasu wurare game da jirgin na Wa'adi, wani irin Mary. The jirgin da aka yi na ba mai sãkẽwa ba da itace da aka dalaye da zinariya tsantsa saboda tsarki na abubuwa da aka tsara don kawo kamar yadda (cf. Tsohon. 25:10-11); kamar yadda da Virgin aka bai wa ruhaniya da kuma ta jiki tsarki da kuma incorruptibility a cikin shiri domin qazanta Ɗan Allah. Cewa Maryamu incorrupt jiki, jirgin na sabon alkawari, za a dauka zuwa sama aka nuna a Zabura 132:8, wanda ya furta, “Tashi, Ya Ubangiji, kuma tafi zuwa ga kyaun wurin ƙailũla, kai da akwatin alkawarin ka ƙarfin.” Wannan Tsohon-alkawarin jirgin mysteriously ya ɓata a wani batu a tarihi ya nuna misalin Our Lady ta ɗauka cewa da.5 Alfarma jirgin ruwa zauna boye for ƙarni, sai Manzo Yahaya kama wani hango shi a cikin sama, kamar yadda ya bayyana a Saukar: “Sa'an nan haikalin Allah a cikin sama da aka bude, da akwatin alkawarin alkawarinsa da aka gani a cikin Haikalinsa … . Kuma mai girma ãyã bayyana a sama, wata mace baiwar da rana, da wata a karkashin ta ƙafa da ta kai wani kambi na goma sha biyu taurari” (11:19, 12:1). Yahaya ya gani na Uwar karbar tuba zaune jiki a aljanna shi ne mafi kusa abu dole mu wani mashaidi sabõda da ɗauka cewa. Ya ci gaba da bayyana cewa ta aka koma zuwa sama bin da ya ke Hawan Yesu zuwa sama. “Ta yaro,” ya furta, “aka fyauce zuwa ga Allah da ya kursiyinsa, da kuma matar gudu zuwa cikin jeji, inda ta na da wani wuri wadda ta shirya Allah, a cikin abin da za a gamsuwa ga dubu ɗari biyu da sittin kwanaki” (12:5-6). Haka nan sai ya ce, “Matar da aka bai biyu fuka-fuki mai girma mikiya dõmin ta tashi daga macijin cikin jeji, to wurin da ta ne da za a gamsuwa ga wani lokaci, kuma sau, da rabin lokaci” (12:14).6

Da farko suke dashi rubuce-rubucen a ɗauka cewa su ne daban-daban Afokirifa da pseudoepigraphical matani, abin da fada karkashin Janar ashin na Nassi na Virgin Mary ko Wucewa Maryama. Mafi tsufa daga cikin wadannan, ya yi ĩmãni da aka hada a lokacin na biyu karni by Leucius Karinus, almajiri Yahaya, An yi tunani da za a dogara a kan wani asali daftarin aiki daga apostolic zamanin, wanda yake shi ne ba suke dashi.7

A farkon Church ta imani da cewa Albarka ta tabbata Virgin ya incorrupt a jiki da kuma rai jabu suka goyon bayan ɗauka cewa. Da m Wasika zuwa Diognetus (cf. 125), Alal misali, yana nufin ta a matsayin Virgin cewa ba za a iya yaudaruwa.8 A gaskiya, da yawa zamanin d marubuta, mafi musamman Saints Justin da shahidi (d. ca. 165) da kuma Irenaeus na Lyons (d. ca. 202), contrasted Mary a ta aminci to Hauwa'u a cikin ta zunubi. Saint Hippolytus na Roma (d. 235), dalibi na Ireneaus, idan aka kwatanta Maria naman da “ba mai sãkẽwa ba katako” na cikin jirgi (Sharhin a Zabura 22). A A karkashin Ka salla, hada a game da tsakiyar karni na uku, Kiran Maryama “Shi kaɗai tsarki da kuma kadai albarka.”

A Saint Ifraimu Syria ta Waka a kan Nativity, daga tsakiyar watan hudu karni, ta yin amfani da hasashe cewa tuna Saukar 12:4, Mary alama ya annabta game da zamaninmu da conveyance ta jiki zuwa sama, yana cewa, “A Babe abin da na kawo ya dauki ni … . Ya lankwasa saukar da pinions da ya kuma sa ni tsakanin fuka-fuki da soared a cikin iska” (17:1). A 377, Saint Epiphanius na Salamis ya rubuta, “Ta yaya za tsarki Mary ba mallaki Mulkin Sama da ita nama, tun da ta kasance ba unchaste, kuma bã dissolute, kuma ba ta taba yin zina, kuma tun da ta taba yi wani laifi ba har zuwa jiki ayyuka da damuwa, amma ya kasance da bakin?” (Panarion 42:12). Wasu sun nuna bai iya yi ĩmãni, a cikin ɗauka cewa tun da ya yi magana a nan Maryama ta jiki ƙofar zuwa sama a nan gaba siga. Amma duk da haka ya jawabin daga baya a cikin wannan daftarin aiki, “Idan ta kashe, … sa'an nan ta samu daukaka tare da shahidai, ita da jiki … zaune a cikin mãsu ji dadin natsuwa da albarka” (ibid. 78:23; girmamawa kara da cewa). Speculating ta mutuwa, ya tafi a kan cewa ko dai

ta mutu ko bai mutu, … ta aka binne shi ko ba binne. … Littafi kawai ne shiru, saboda girman da prodigy, domin kada su yi dũka da hankali mutum da wuce kima mamaki. …

Idan mai tsarki Virgin ya rasu, kuma an binne shi ya, Lalle ne ita mulkin da ya faru da tsananin girmama; ta karshen shi ne mafi tsarki da kuma lashe by virginit. …

Ko ta ci gaba da rayuwa. Domin, ga Allah, shi ne, ba zai yiwu ba a yi abin da ya so; a wannan bangaren, ba wanda ya san daidai abin da ta ƙarshe da aka (ibid. 78:11, 23).

Cewa Epiphanius ba su san cikakken bayani game da Maryamu wucewa ne daidai m–Kiristoci har yanzu ba su sani ba da cikakken bayani game da shi kuma shi ne wata ila Manzanni kansu ba su san ko dai, mata jiki da aka dauka daga cikin an kewaye kabarin.9 Ba kamar sauran wuri marubuta, duk da haka, Epiphanius kauce masa bisa ƙirƙira cikakken bayani wa kansa. Ko da yake bai san daidai abin da ya faru, ya san, a hasken Maria cikakken tsarkake, cewa ta wucewa ya kasance banmamaki,–wani abu da zai “dũka da hankali mutum da wuce kima mamaki”–da kuma cewa ta iya ba su zauna a cikin kabari. “A cikin Apocalypse Yahaya,” ya kuma lura, “mun karanta cewa dragon jẽfa kansa a mace wanda ya ba ta haifi da namiji yaro; amma fikafikan gaggafa aka bai wa matar, sai ta tashi cikin hamada, inda dragon ba zai iya isa ta. Wannan zai iya faru a Maryamu harka (Rev. 12:13-14)” (ibid. 78:11).

A farkon karni na biyar, ko baya, idin da tunawa da Mary–da ke, da tunawa da ita wucewa–da aka gabatar a cikin Eastern ibadar, ajiye ta a cikin mafi tsufa na Church ta hukuma idin kwana.10 Kusa da shekara 400, Chrysippus Urushalima yi sharhi a kan Zabura 132, “The gaske sarauta Ark, mafi daraja jirgin, shi ne har abada-Virgin Theotokos; cikin jirgi wanda aka bai wa taska dukan tsarkakewa” (A Zabura 131(132)).

An ai da marubuci daga wannan lokaci guda, aiki a karkashin alkalami sunan na Saint Melito na Sardisu, wani kusa-zamani na Leucius, kanã abin zargi shi har da ciwon “gurbace mafi tsoho da rubutu da bayãninsa ya sirri ideas abin da ba su yarda da koyarwar Manzanni” (Bagatti, et al., p. 11). Wannan marubucin ƙoƙarin mayar da gaskiya sabõda da ɗauka cewa, abin da ya zargin Leucius da “gurbace da mugunyar alkalami” (Shigewar Mai Tsarki Virgin, Prologue).

A game da 437, Saint Quodvultdeus gano Woman a Saukar 12 kamar yadda Albarka ta tabbata Virgin, abin lura, “Kada wani daga gare ku watsi (gaskiyar) cewa dragon (a cikin Apocalypse na manzo Yohanna) shi ne shaidan; san cewa da budurwa tana nuna Mary, da kamun kai daya, suka haife mu masu kamun kai kansa” (Na uku homily 3:5).

A game da tsakiyar karni na biyar, Saint Hesychius Urushalima rubuta, “Jirgin na ka tsarkakewa, da Virgin theotokos lalle ne. Idan kai ne lu'u-lu'u to, tã dole ne jirgin” (Homily a kan Ruhu Mai Mary, Uwar Allah). Kusa da 530, Oecumenius ce na Saukar 12, “Gaskiya ba abin da ya gani nuna ta a sama, ba a kan ƙasa, kamar yadda tsarki a rai da jiki” (Sharhin a kan Apocalpyse). Rubuta na ɗauka cewa a kusa da ƙarshen shida karni, Saint Gregory na Tours (sabanin Ephiphanius) ba su kauce wa biyo baya cikakken bayani game da Crossings story. “Sai ga,” ya rubuta Gregory, “kuma Ubangiji ya tsaya da (Manzanni); mai tsarki jiki (Maryam) ya aka samu, Ya umurce shi cewa za a dauka a cikin gajimare a cikin aljanna” (Takwas Books of Ayyukan al'ajibai 1:4).

Masu sukar na Church ta Marian koyarwar sanya da yawa daga gaskiya cewa farko-sani asusun na ɗauka cewa an samu a cikin Afokirifa rubuce-rubucen, da kuma cewa Church Ubanni ba su yi magana da shi a gaban marigayi-hudu karni.

Shi ne kuma gaskiya ne, duk da haka, cewa Ubanni ba su duba su gyara imani a cikin ɗauka cewa; sun kawai zauna shiru a cikin al'amarin–wani unprecedented ra'ayi idan ta kasance mai karkata koyarwa, musamman ma da aka ba ta ruwan dare a tsakanin masu aminci. Shi ne wuya, Lalle ne, cewa manufar Maria ɗauka cewa, abin da ya mutunta tsarkake daga jikin mutum, zai iya samo asali daga Gnostics, da aka ba su sunyi tir da jiki da kuma dukan kõme jiki. A Tsarki, a gaskiya, su ne sau da yawa ba aikin Litattafansu, amma na ai da Kiristoci neman don gabatar da cikakken bayani kan hakikanin abubuwan da suka faru daga rayuwar Almasihu da Saints da aka in ba haka ba tana tattare a cikin asiri. Duk da yake apocryphists ƙawãta labarin da ɗauka cewa, ba su ƙirƙira shi. Gaskiya cewa Crossings wanzu kusan ko'ina a cikin duniya Kirista, bayyana a mahara harsuna, ciki har da Yahudanci, Girka, Latin, 'Yan Koftik, Syriac, Ethiopic, da kuma Arabic, ya tabbatar da labarin Maryamu ta ɗauka cewa an yada duniya a farkon ƙarni da, Saboda haka, na apostolic asalin.

Yayin da Church yã kasance Masani ga hatsarin da hannu a dogaro kan ayyukan da spurious yanayi, ba za a iya musanta cewa kernels na gaskiya fi a yawancin irin ayyukan. Tuna, misali, cewa Saint Jude yana nufin Zato Musa da kuma Na farko Anuhu a cikin Sabon Alkawari Wasika (gani Jude 1:9, 14 JJu.). Origin cikin hikima ya lura:

Mu ne bai zama Mai gafala da cewa da dama daga cikin wadannan asiri rubuce-rubucen da aka samar da maza, shahara, sabõda zãlunci. … Dole ne mu yi amfani da haka taka tsantsan a yarda duk waɗannan m rubuce-rubucen cewa kewaya a karkashin sunan tsarkaka … saboda wasu daga cikinsu sun rubuta halaka gaskiya mu Littãfi da don gabatar da ƙarya koyarwa. A wannan bangaren, kada mu kaucewa ƙaryata game da rubuce-rubucen da zai zama da amfani a zubar haske a kan Littafi. Shi ne wata ãyã daga babban mutum ya ji, kuma gudanar da wani da shawarar Littafi: “Gwajin duk abin da; riƙe abin da ke mai kyau” (1 Thessalia. 5:21) (Sharhin a kan Matiyu 28).

A 494, Paparoma Saint Gelasius, nẽman tsare da aminci a kan yiwuwar corruptive rinjayar da yawa addini rubuce-rubucen m marubucin cewa plagued Kirista duniya, fitar da jerin canonical littattafai kõma sama da ya gada, Paparoma Saint Damasus, guda biyu tare da wani dogon kasida na yarda da unacceptable karin-Littafi Mai Tsarki littattafai.

Abokan adawar na Church sanya wani batun da cewa rubutun Afokirifa a kan zato kunshe cikin haramta littattafai a Gelasius’ decre, amma Paparoma wadai Afokirifa mai account na ɗauka, i mana, kuma ba ɗauka cewa kanta.

Afokirifa asusun na sauran ai da imani suna kamar yadda Allah wadai a cikin Littãfin–da Protoevangelium Yakubu, Alal misali, kulla tare da Nativity; da kuma Ayyukan Peter da alaka da Bitrus mishan aiki da shahadar a Roma. Fi ga zance, da rubuce-rubucen Tertullian aka dakatar, ko da yake ya rubuce-rubucen, Alal misali, kawai mai suna Baftisma da kuma Repentance, kare ai da matsayi a kan wadannan batutuwa. Ya aikata Gelasius’ hukunci daga cikin wadannan littattafai adadin zuwa da kin amincewa da Baftisma da Kuma tuba, to,, ko yake yi karin tare da wata tambaya na Tertullian hali?

A bayyane yake, da banning na da wani littãfi a cikin Gelasian umurnin ba za a iya ce ya zama wani wholesale kin amincewa da littafin ta batun kwayoyin halitta ko abinda ke ciki. Sau da dama, more malanta za a bukata da Church raraka fitar da gaske cutarwa abubuwa daga wadannan littattafai. Kafin nan, ajiye su a karkashin ban da aka basira bai wa rashin tabbas kewaye da su.11

Ga waɗanda neman samun a cikin Gelasian umurnin wasu jayayya da Papal rashin kuskuren, ya kamata a bayyana cewa banning na wani littafi da kõme ba su yi da Paparoma ta rashin kuskuren tun yana da wani horo mataki kawai, ba da alaka da fassara na akidarsu. Da yanayi, wani horo mataki ne batun canjin. Yana tsaye a wuri kawai matuƙar gane barazana wanzu; sau ɗaya da barazana ya wuce, da soka aka dauke. A cikin wannan harka musamman, kamar yadda Canon na Littafi Mai Tsarki girma a yarda da barazana shirya kai da Tsarki waned da ban zama wanda aka rabu amfani.

  1. Wannan shi ne m hujja lalle ne aka ba Kiristanci ta penchant ga tsare da venerating salihin sauran kaya–a yi wanda Dates a mayar da shi farkon zamanin da addini a matsayin Shahadar Saint Polycarp, hada a tsakiyar karni na biyu, shows.
  2. Duk da yake Katolika sun bisa ga al'ada yi ĩmãni Mary aka Ban daga aiki sha raɗaɗin, an kamata ta, kuma haƙĩƙa sha mutuwa domin daidai bi Her Ɗan, wanda yake marar zunubi yarda mutuwa (cf. Phil. 2:5 JJu.). A fassara da akidarsu na ɗauka cewa, Pius XII kauce masa cewa ga wasu da ta rasu, kawai furtawa ta na da “kammala hanya na ta duniya rai” (Munificentissimus Allah 44).
  3. A Catechism of cocin Katolika koyar, “A ɗauka cewa daga cikin Albarka ta tabbata Virgin ne mai mufuradi sa hannu a cikin ta Ɗan ta ¡iyãma, kuma an jira na tashin wasu Kiristoci … . Ta riga hannun jari a cikin daukaka ta Ɗan ta iyãma, kãfin tashin dukan 'yan Jiki ya” (966, 974).
  4. Akwai wasu abubuwan da suka faru gagarumin a cikin rãyuwar da apostolic Church wanda aka tsallake daga Sabon Alkawari da, irin su martyrdoms Bitrus da Bulus, da kuma lalata Urushalima da Roman legions a shekara ta 70. Bisa ga Muratorian guntu, hada a Roma a karshen wani ɓangare na biyu karni, Luka kawai kunshe a cikin Ayyukan Manzanni abubuwan da ya halarta tare da nasa idanu. Cewa Luka kauce masa rubuce-rubuce na abubuwan da ya yi ba a zahiri gani taimake mu mu fahimci dalilin da ya sa ɗauka cewa ba rubuce, ga shi ya faru a cikin wani kabari. Ba kamar da ya ke hawan Yesu zuwa sama, a jama'a taron gani da yawa, ɗauka cewa ba shaidun ido.
  5. Na biyu Maccabees 2:5 ya ce Irmiya shãfe haske jirgin a cikin kogo a kan Dutsen Nebo kafin a Kaldiyawa mamayewa na Urushalima a 587 B.C. (cf. 2 Sar. 24:13, et al.).
  6. Protestantism o ƙarin tabbatar da ganin wannan Woman kamar yadda ko dai wani m adadi na Isra'ila, ko da Church (cf. Gen. 37:9). Katolika yarda da wadannan fassarori, amma kara da su zuwa sun hada da a cikin wani takamaiman hanyar Mary, da embodiment daga mutãnen Allah. Isra'ila ta haifa Almasihu figuratively; Mary haifa masa a zahiri. A commenting a kan wannan nassi, Saint Quodvultdeus (d. 453), da Bishop na Carthage da wani almajiri na Saint Augustine, ya rubuta cewa Mary “Har ila yau, embodied a kanta a adadi na mai tsarki coci: wato, yadda za yayin da qazanta a dan, ta kasance budurwa, sabõda haka, ikilisiya cikin lokaci shaida, ita da 'yan, duk da haka ta ba ya rasa ta budurci” (Na uku homily a kan Creed 3:6; ga kuma Clement na Alexandria, Malami daga Bani 1:6:42:1).

    A motif mutanen Allah tsere “a kan fikafikan gaggafa” a wani wuri mafaka za a iya samu a ko'ina cikin Tsohon Alkawari (gani Tsohon. 19:4; Zab. 54 (55):6-7; Isa. 40:31, et al.). Allah wa'adin “tserewa cikin jeji” An bayyananne cika a cikin ɗauka cewa, Mary kasancewa preeminent wakilin daga mutane.

    A m nassoshi a Saukar 12 zuwa tsawon lokaci, “dubu da ɗari biyu da sittin kwanaki” da kuma “ga wani lokaci, kuma sau, da rabin lokaci” (6, 14), iya wakilci tsawon tsananta, da Church zai dawwama, kafin na biyu Akuma Almasihu.

    Verse 12:17 ya ce shaidan, infuriated da Woman ta gudun hijira, ya fita “su sa yaki a kan sauran ita da zũriyarta, a kan waɗanda suka ci gaba da dokar Allah, kuma ku bãyar da shaida da Yesu.” Cewa masu bin Almasihu suna dauke “Sauran ita da zũriyarta” goyon bayan Church ta game for Mary kamar yadda Uwar All Kiristoci (cf. Isa. 66:8; John 19:26-27).

  7. Duk da yake a wani lokaci da Crossings An yi tunani sun samo asali ba a baya fiye da karni na hudu, wasu tauhidin sharuddan amfani da Leucius’ daftarin aiki tabbatar da asalin ko dai a karo na biyu ko na uku karni (Bagatti, et al., p. 14; Bagatti nusar da nasa ayyukan, S. Bitrus a “Dormition Maryama,” shafi. 42-48; Bincike a kan hadisai na mutuwar da Virgin, shafi. 185-214).
  8. Da ainihin rubutu karanta: “Idan ka kai ga itãciyar (ilmi) da kuma tara da 'ya'yan itace, za ka ko da yaushe a tara a cikin abubuwan da suke kyawawa a wurin Allah, abubuwan da macijin ba zai iya shãfe da yaudara ba zai iya ƙazantar. Sa'an nan Hauwa'u ba a yaudare, amma a Virgin aka same amintacce” (Wasika zuwa Diognetus 12:7-9). Game da wannan nassi, Cyril c. Richardson comments, “Shi ne fairly bayyana cewa marubucin yi niyyar bayyana da na kowa patristic bambanci … tsakanin Hauwa'u, da m uwar mutuwa, da Maryamu, da biyayya uwa na rayuwa, wanda idan da parthenos na rubutu zai zama mai albarka Virgin Mary” (Farkon Kirista Ubanni, New York: Collier Books, 1970, p. 224, n. 23). Hilda Graef gamsu, yana cewa, “Shi kusan alama kamar Mary da ake kiran Hauwa'u ba tare da wani bayani kara” (Mary: A History of rukunan da Ibadah, vol. 1, New York: Sheed da Ward, 1963, p. 38).
  9. Ya bambanta da Crossings lissafi, abin da ikirarin da Manzanni halarta Maria jiki da ake hawa zuwa sama, akwai hadisin da ta mutu a kan Janairu 18 (Tobi 21), amma cewa ta m kabarin da aka ba gano har 206 bayan kwana a Agusta 15 (Riwayar 16) (ga Graef, Mary, vol. 1, p. 134, n. 1; marubucin nusar da Dom Capelle, Littafi jaridu Lovanienses 3, 1926, p. 38; M.R. James, A Afokirifa Sabon Alkawari, 1924, shafi. 194-201).
  10. Idin da Nativity (Ina nufin, Kirsimeti) An kafa a farkon karni na hudu, a zamanin mulkin Constantine. Idin da Hawan Yesu zuwa sama aka kafa a cikin karni na biyar, ya asali an kunshe a cikin idin Pentakos.
  11. Ta wannan hanya, Church kama uwar ke hana 'ya'yanta to watch wani TV show har sai da ta ya na da damar duba da show da hukunci da abinda ke ciki a gare kanta. Church ya kullum kuskure a gefen taka tsantsan a shiryayye al'amura na addini da rayuwa mai kyau. La'akari da cewa, mafi kwanan nan, Tsarkaka Teresa na Avila (d. 1582) da Yahaya na Cross (d. 1591), yanzu girmama matsayin Doctors na Church, An tambayoyi da Inquisition a kan tuhuma da karkatacciyar koyarwa. Hakazalika, da diary na Saint Faustina Kowalska (d. 1938), Allah rahama a My Soul, An a wani lokaci sun ƙaryata a matsayin heterodox da Church masana tauhidi, amma baya sami hukuma yabo a karkashin Paparoma John Paul Mai girma. Faustina ayoyin samu a cikin diary, a gaskiya, sun kai ga ma'aikata na idin Allahntaka rahama, yanzu duniya bikin a cikin Ikilisiyar.