Jariri Baftisma

Me ya sa baftisma Katolika jariran, a lokacin da jariran ba zai iya ko da magana wa kansu? Cocin Katolika ya koyar, "Yã gaskata zo daga alherin Allah. Grace ne so, da free kuma cancanci taimako da Allah ya bamu don amsa wa kiran zama 'ya'yan Allah, adoptive da 'ya'ya maza, tarayya na allahntaka yanayi da rai madawwami " (Catechism 1996). A Baftisma na yaro, wanda shi ne m ko na tambayar su sami ceto, Saboda haka, nuna daidai da rai ta jimlar dogara a kan alherin Allah.

Duk da yake mun sami shaida jarirai aka yi masa baftisma a farkon ƙarni na Kiristanci, ba mu sami yi tsaya takarar har Anabaptists yi haka a cikin karni na sha shida.1 Kiristoci suka ƙaryata game da baftisma jarirai sau da yawa nace babu wani bayyana Nassi arziki ga shi. Amma duk da haka, da wannan alama, babu wani bayyane haramta da shi ko dai. A gaskiya, cewa Littafi Mai Tsarki ya nuna Saint Yahaya Maibaftisma karbar Ruhu Mai Tsarki yayin da har yanzu a ciki uwarsa sa da tsarkakewar jarirai a Littafi Mai-Tsarki ra'ayi (Luka 1:15, 41; cf. Littafin Mahukunta. 16:17; Zab. 22:10; Saboda. 1:5). Akwai ƙarin shaidun da ke cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki da cewa yara kamata a yi masa baftisma. A cikin Linjila, Alal misali, za mu ga uwaye kawo su kananan yara, da kuma "ko da jarirai,"Kamar yadda Saint Luka ƙayyade, wa Ubangiji a gare shi don sa hannuwansa a kansu. Lokacin da almajiransa shiga tsakani, Yesu ya tsauta musu, yana cewa, "Ku bar yara ƙanana su zo wurina, kuma kada ku hana su; don to irin wannan ne da mulkin Allah. Lalle, Ina gaya maka, wanda bai yi na'am da Mulkin Allah kamar yaro ba zai shige ta ba " (Luka 18:15-17, et al.). Karantar da jama'a a Fentikos a yi masa baftisma, Bitrus ya furta, "Ga wa'adin ne zuwa gare ku kuma zuwa 'ya'yanku ... kowa da kowa wanda Ubangiji ya kira shi " (Ayyukan Manzanni 2:39; girmamawa kara da cewa). Bulus ya gano Baftisma da cikar kaciya, a yanka yi a kan jarirai (Kanal. 2:11-12). A karshe, akwai lokutta a Littafi a cikin abin da dukan gidaje, m ciki har da kananan yara da jarirai, an yi masa baftisma (gani Ayyukan Manzanni 16:15, 32-33, et al.).

Cewa jarirai su iya su nemi Baftisma wa kansu ba wani misãli ba a kan yi baftisma. Bayan duk, ba wanda ya iya zuwa wurin Allah a kan kansa himma, amma kawai ta alherin Allah. Jarirai da ake tsayar a Baftisma, ba ta da nasu addini, amma ta wurin bangaskiyar vicarious na Church, kama da shugaban majami'ar 'yar wanda aka mayar da daga matattu ta wurin bangaskiya cikin iyayenta (Matt. 9:25; cf. John 11:44; Ayyukan Manzanni 9:40). Idan kyauta na halitta rayuwar iya mayar da wannan hanya, me ya sa ba kyautar allahntaka rai? Da mace dauki ga baftisma, font kama shanyayyen na Matiyu 9:2, ɗauke da wasu a cikin gaban Ubangiji. A gaskiya, kõme ba haka daidai misalta mutum ta jimlar dogara a kan alherin Allah a samun ceto kamar yadda Infant Baftisma, da yaron kasancewa sarai m na neman da sacrament da kansa volition (cf. Catechism 1250). Kamar yadda yi musu baftisma ta zo mafi ƙarfinsa, kuma ya ikon bauta wa Allah ƙaruwa, ya ake bukata don kaina suke da'awar da imani da Almasihu a cikin sacrament na Tabbacin.

A ce jarirai da matasa da yara da wani bukatar Baftisma da yake a cikin sakamako a ce suna da ba za mu sami ceto ba za mu-, da ke, wani mai ceto! Duk da yake yara da ke ƙasa da shekara dalili ne m da aikata ainihin zunubanku, an haife shi da laifi na Original Sin a kan su rai (cf. Zab. 51:7; Rom. 5:18-19), wanda dole ne a wanke bãya a Baftisma. A Church ta koyarwa a kan Original Zunubi ya haddasa mata masu sukar zuwa zaton ta koyar da jarirai da suka mutu ba tare da Baftisma da ake yi masa hukuncin Jahannama. Gaskiya ne cewa wasu daga cikin Ubanni ba tare da so kiyaye wannan ra'ayi, amma maganganun bayan daya ko fiye na masu Ubanni Ba dole ba dokoki ne na aikin Church koyarwa. Kawai sunyi baki daya shaidar da Ubanni a kan wani al'amari na addini da rayuwa mai kyau da aka gudanar da zama marar kuskure, doctrinally. Gaskiyar ita, Church bai dogmatically a tsare al'adar yara da suka mutu ba tare da Baftisma. A Catechism jihohin, "Lalle ne, mai girma rahamar Allah wanda nufin cewa dukan mutane su tsira, da kuma Yesu tausayi ga yara ... ƙyale mu mu fatan cewa akwai wata hanya na ceto ga yara suka mutu ba tare da Baftisma " (1261). 2

A tarihi shaida ga Jariri Baftisma wanzu duniya daga wani wuri kwanan wata. Cewa Didache, wani Church manual Dating zuwa ƙarni na farko, damar domin Baftisma ko dai ta hanyar nutsewa ko ta hanyar zuba, dangane bisa yanayin, nuna m Kiristoci yi masa baftisma su jarirai.3 A game da shekara 156, Saint Polycarp na Smyrna, almajiri na Manzo Yahaya, Ya sanar jim kadan kafin shahadar da ya yi aiki Almasihu a gare tamanin da shida shekaru, da ke, daga reno ina qarami (gani A Shahadarsa na Saint Polycarp 9:3). Kusa da 185, Polycarp ta dalibi, Saint Irenaeus na Lyons, ayyana, "[Yesu] ya zo domin ya ceci duka ta hanyar kansa ya,Kowane, Na ce, wanda ta wurinsa ne haifi da Allah-jarirai, da yara, da matasa, da kuma tsohon mutane. Saboda haka ya shige, ta hanyar kowane zamani, zama wani jariri ga jarirai, yana tsarkake jarirai; yaro yara, yana tsarkake wanda yake na cewa shekaru " (Da Heresies 2:22:4). "Har ila yau baftisma da jarirai ...,"Ya rubuta Saint Clement na Alexandria a kusa da shekara 200. "Domin ya ce ya: 'Bar da kananan yara su zo gare ni, da kuma hana su ba ' (Matt. 19:14)" (A Apostolical tsarin mulkin kasa 6:15). A lokaci guda, Saint Hippolytus tsĩrar da wadannan umarni ga masu aminci, "Baftisma farko da yara; kuma idan za su iya magana wa kansu, sai su yi haka. In ba haka ba, bari iyayensu ko wasu zumunta magana a gare su " (A Apostolic Hadishi 21).

  1. Ko da yake Tertullian, kusa A.D. 200, shawarar da Jariri Baftisma, bai tambaye ta inganci, amma kawai ta Prudence (gani Baftisma 18:4-6). Hakazalika, da ra'ayin cewa Baftisma kamata ya yi jinkiri har kwana takwas bayan haihuwa aka muhawara da baya ƙi da majalisar Carthage a 252. Da inganci na Jariri Baftisma ba wani batun a cikin wannan harka ko dai.
  2. Game da Church ta view a kan ceton unbaptized jarirai, da aka samu wasu rikice a kan manufar tana dabo, a msar tambayar ƙoƙari na sulhu da wajibcin Baftisma domin ceto tare da gaskiyar cewa wasu yara mutu ba tare da shi. Saba wa wani m kuskure ne, da ka'idar yadda ya kamata fahimci riko da cewa tana dabo ba wani wuri na azaba amma na natsuwa. Waɗanda suka shiga cikin tana dabo rayuwa a cikin mulkin cikakken, na halitta kyakkyawa da zaman lafiya. Duk da haka, saboda tana dabo aka taba tãyar da matakin da akidarsu, Katolika ne free su da su kãfirta da ra'ayin; kuma wannan ya kasance kullum haka al'amarin.

    An kuma an samarwa cewa unbaptized yara suka halaka sami ceto daga wani Baftisma na Desire, da ke, da Church ta vicarious so cewa duk ana yi musu baftisma. "A Church bai san wani yana nufin wanin Baftisma da tabbatar shigarwa cikin madawwami beatitude,"Karanta Catechism; "Wannan shi ne dalilin da ya sa ta rika kula kada su shagala da manufa ta samu ne daga Ubangijin su ga cewa duk wanda za a iya yi masa baftisma da ake 'haifi na ruwa da kuma Ruhu' (John 3:5). Allah ya daure ceto ga sacrament na Baftisma, amma shi da kansa ba a daure ta da sharu ɗ ​​" (1257).

    Jawo kan Church ta chikin fata cewa yara suka mutu ba tare da Baftisma da ake lalle cece, Paparoma John Paul ya tabbatar mata da suka tũba daga bãyan ciwon wani zubar da ciki, "Za kuma su iya nẽmi gãfara daga yaro, wanda yanzu zaune a cikin Ubangiji " (Bisharar Life 99; Uba William P. Saunders, "Madaidaiciya Answers: Shin, Zub Bani Ku tafi zuwa sama?", Arlington Katolika Herald, Oktoba 8, 1998).

  3. Kamar yadda Bertrand L. Conway nuna, akwai m archeological shaida tabbatar da al'adar Baftisma da effusion a farkon Church. Ancient Kirista art, irin su a cikin catacombs da farkon bapistries, fiye nuna masa baftisma a tsaye a cikin wani m pool da ruwa da ake zuba, a kansa,. Conway ma jãyayya da cewa dubu uku sabobin tuba a Fentikos (Ayyukan Manzanni 2:41) bai kasance ga yi masa baftisma ta hanyar nutsewa saboda su lambobi da rashin babban jiki na ruwa a Urushalima. Nutsewa, ya lura, dã ya kasance impractical da a gidan Cornelius (Ayyukan Manzanni 10:47-48) kuma a cikin kurkuku a Filibi (Ayyukan Manzanni 16:33). A karshe, ya muhawwara da cewa wajibcin Baftisma domin ceto yana nufin siffofin wanin nutsewa dole ne halatta, in ba haka ba ta yaya zai iya tsare da, da rauni, kananan yara, da waɗanda suke zaune a matsananci yankuna irin su Arctic Circle, ko wani hamada sami Baftisma? (A Tambaya Box, New York , 1929, shafi. 240-241).