Shi ne Paparoma cikakkar?

Image of Saint Peter by Giovanni BelliniKatolika yi imani da cewa shugaban Kirista ne, haƙĩƙa, marar kuskure,, amma kawai a kan al'amura na bangaskiya, kawai a lokacin da hudu sosai musamman yanayin da ake gana, kuma kawai domin an shiryar da Ruhu Mai Tsarki.

Shugaban Kirista ne wani mutum, kuma kamar wani mutum, shugaban Kirista ne mai auku zunubi. Kuma duk da haka, kamar yadda kai tsaye gaje na Saint Peter, ya shiryu game da Ruhu Mai Tsarki don kauce wa kurakurai a kan al'amura na Church koyarwa. Don wasu, shugaban Kirista na iya ze kafa wani shãmaki a gare Katolika fahimtar Littafi, ko ya iya ko da ze kamar irin na ruhaniya tanƙwasawa, dictating zuwa Katolika dole ne su yi imani da abin da. Fahimci yadda ya kamata, ko da yake, papacy ne mai girma kyautar cewa Yesu ya ba da shi ga Church domin ya kiyaye ta daga batar cikin ƙarya fassarori da Littafi, da su taimaka mata girma a cikin wani zurfi dangantaka da Shi.

Babu karfi empirical shaida don taimaka wa abin da Katolika yi imani game da shugaban Kirista. Bari mu da wata look …

Daura da Sako-sako

Tabbas mafi muhimmanci Littafi nassi ga fahimtar primacy na Bitrus da Papal rashin kuskuren ne Bisharar Matiyu 16:17-19. A cikin wannan nassi, kamar yadda za mu gani, Bitrus yana karɓa ta musamman koyarwa dalĩli daga Yesu. Don saita mataki, Yesu ya tambayi goma sha biyu Manzanni suka yi ĩmãni mutane Shi ne. Suka ba da baya a jerin daidai ba amsoshin. Yã Ubangijinmu to, ya tambaye su,, "Wa kuke faɗa, ni ne?" A wannan lokaci, Manzo Bitrus matakai ido in yi magana a madadin daga cikin sha biyun, ba da amsa daidai: "Kai ne Almasihu, Ɗan Allah Rayayye. "To wannan, Yesu ya amsa:

17 “Albarka ne ku, Simon Bar-Yahaya?! Ga nama da jini bai saukar da wannan a gare ku, amma Ubana wanda ke cikin sama.

18 Kuma ina gaya muku, kai ne Bitrus, kuma a kan wannan dutsen, zan gina coci ta, da iko Jahannama bã zã ta fi gaba da shi.

19 Zan ba ka da mabuɗan Mulkin Sama, Kuma abin da kuka daura a duniya za a daure a sama, da abin da ka kwance a cikin ƙasa za a saki a cikin sama.”

Da farko, a cikin aya ta 17, Ubangiji ya albarka Peter, tsantsan da ilmi ne wani al'amari ba na mutum diraya, amma na Allah wahayi.

Na biyu, a cikin aya ta 18, Yanã bãyar da Simon sabon sunan, Peter, cika kalmominSa masa daga Bisharar Yahaya 1:42. Kuma Yesu ya yi alkawarin gina wa Church a kansa.

Na uku, a cikin aya ta 19, Yesu ya bada Peter kyautar da mabuɗan Mulkin Sama da ikon su ɗaure da sako-sako da (a rabbinical harshen wannan nufi zuwa hana da kuma yarda), tabbatar masa cewa a duniya yanke shawara za a tsayar a Sama. A nan ne crux al'amarin! Abubuwan da Bitrus ya koyar a cikin ƙasa za a tsayar a matsayin gaskiya da Allah a cikin sama. A bayyane yake, domin shi ajizai kuma mai zunubi, Peter dole ne a ba ta musamman alheri su hana shi daga bayarwa dokokin da suke saba wa nufin Allah. Wannan na musamman alheri shi ne abin da Katolika kira Papal rashin kuskuren. Ba tare da shi, Allah zai zama a matsayin ciwon ya tabbatar da ƙarya koyaswar kamar yadda gaskiya da-, i mana, zai zama wani rashin yiwuwar kamar yadda Shi ne Gaskiya kanta (gani John 14:6). A saka shi wani hanya, idan yana yiwuwa ga duniya shugaban Church a yi wani erroneous koyarwa dauri a kan masu aminci, to, Church rasa allahntaka kwanciyar hankali cewa Yesu ya tabbatar da ita a lõkacin da Ya yi muku wa'adi ƙõfõfin Jahannama ba zai fi a kan mata (Matt. 16:18).1

Kunamu ga mulkin sama

A symbolism na da mabuɗan ya zo daga zamanin d al'ada da abin da sarki ya nada ya sarauta boyi shugabansu na mulkin a ɓõye, kuma danƙa shi da makullin ta zuwa ga ƙõfõfi.

A cikin Littafin Ishaya Annabi, Ubangiji ya sternly bayani sarki boyi, Sheb'na, yana cewa, "Zan sanya muku daga ofishin, kuma za a jẽfa daga tashar. ... Ni kuma zan sanya a kan [ka gaje ta] kafada da key na gidan Dawuda; shi ne zai bude, ba wanda zai rufe; kuma shi ne zai rufe, ba wanda zai bude " (22:19, 22; girmamawa kara da cewa).2

Yesu ne Sarkin sarakuna, "Mai tsarki daya, na gaskiya daya, wanda yana da key na David, wanda ya buɗe kuma ba wanda zai rufe, wanda Yana kuma ba wanda ya buɗe " (Saukar 3:7; ga kuma 1:18 da kuma Aiki 12:14). A Matiyu 16:19, Almasihu Sarkin nada Bitrus ya zama da boyi ya kula da Church, Mulkinsa a duniya, a cikin rashi. A yin haka, Ubangiji ya ba ku bar wa m dalĩli, wani fiye da zamanin d wadanada relinquished nasu zuwa ga lura.

Da koyarwa rashin kuskuren Peter, wanda daya xan hango a cikin ikirari a Kaisariya Filibi (Matt. 16), a fili take a cikin shahararrun Majalisar Urushalima, a da Manzanni hadu hukunci ko riko da Dokar Musa ake bukata domin ceto.

Saint Luka asusun, a cikin Ayyukan Manzanni, nuna Ruhu Mai Tsarki yake magana a cikin Church ta Magisterium (ko "koyar da ofishin")Wato, ta hanyar taron jama'ar Manzanni (ko bishops) a cikin jam'iyya da Bitrus (shugaban Kirista)-domin A ƙarshe shirya wannan koyaswa shawarwari (15:28). Musamman, shi ne Peter wanda settles da shawarwari; shi ne jawabin da ya zo da muhawara zuwa kusa (15:7). Ko da yake Saint James, a matsayin Bishop na Urushalima, An bai wa girmamawa ga moderating majalisa, shi ne Peter suka bayani taron a koyaswa da James 'rufe jawabinsa mai gaskatãwa ya umurci.

Fresco of the Popes by Sandro Botticelli

A lokacin da rashin kuskuren Ashe Rike?

Katolika koyarwa a kan da rashin kuskuren da Paparoma da aka akai-akai fahimci furucin. Domin wata sanarwa domin ka cancanci a matsayin marar kuskure,, wasu sharudda dole ne a hadu. Paparoma tilas:

  1. Niyyar yin magana a matsayin Fasto na Universal Church. Da bambanci, da ya yi magana quite sau da yawa a matsayin masu zaman kansu theologian ko talakawa bishop, kamar lokacin da ya bayani mahajjata suka hallara a Saint Bitrus Square. A cikin wadannan lokutta, Paparoma ta rashin kuskuren ba ya zo a cikin play.
  2. Furta a kan al'amura na addini da rayuwa mai kyau. Kalamai a kan wani batu (irin su siyasa, ko kuma kimiyyar) kada ka cancanci.
  3. Niyyar sa wani babu makawa yanke shawara cewa za a tambaya a kan dukan masu aminci. Da kafa azumi, da banning na da wani littãfi, ko da soka na wani rukunin ko mutum, duk misalai na kawai horo ayyuka, waxanda suke da reversible da, Saboda haka, ba ma'asumi.
  4. Dole ne magana da full yarda daga nufin. Kalmomi furta a karkashin duress ba zai count. Da bane ya yi magana infallibly dole ne a bayyana, ko dai ta hanyar da Paparoma kai tsaye ko kusa da yanayi kewaye da fatawa.

Duk da yake a papal sanarwa iya saduwa da daya ko fiye daga cikin wadannan bukatun, shi wajibi ne cewa duk na bukatun da za a gana domin a kansa a yi la'akari marar kuskure,.

Shi ke Koyar, ba Gudanar!

Shi ne sau da yawa kuskuren zaton cewa Paparoma ta sirri kurakuransu ƙi yarda da rashin kuskuren, amma rashin kuskuren ya yi da koyarwa, ba gudanar. Bugu da ƙari, Umurnin Yesu ya yi biyayya ga shamaki ba (gani Luka 10:16 da kuma Matiyu 18:17) ba sa contingent a kan halin kirki mutunci (gani Matiyu 23:2-3).

A cikin Tsohon Alkawari, David zauna da aka shar'anta Sarkin Isra'ila duk da zunubansa (ganin Na biyu Littafi mai Samuel, 11:1). Dansa, Sarki Sulemanu, da ɗari bakwai matansu da ɗari uku ƙwaraƙwarai, har ma tsunduma a bautar gumaka, duk da haka shi ma ya zauna cikin wajabta shugaban Allah zaba mutane, shekara arba'in (ganin Na farko littafin sarakunan, 11:3, 5, 7, 33, 42). Haka ma, la'akari da goma sha biyu Manzanni, suka yi na farko da shugabannin Sabon Alkawari Church, kuma aka Handpicked da Ubangiji da kansa!

  • Daya bashe shi a gare azurfa talatin;
  • Duk amma daya watsi da shi a cikin sa'a guda daga mafi girma bukatar;
  • Peter ƙaryata ya ma san shi (gani Matiyu, 26:20, et al.);
  • Ko da bayan iyãma, Thomas yana da rikicin bangaskiya (gani John 20:24-25);
  • Peter nuna yawan dauki (gani Galatiyawa 2:11-14); da kuma
  • Paul kayen, "Ban gane ba kaina wannan aiki. Domin ba na yi abin da na so, amma na yi matukar abu na cewa ba na so a yi " (Romawa 7:15).

Kuma duk da haka, da zunubi da Church shugabannin ba ya soke su dalĩli, kuma bã a yanayin saukan da popes yake zai shafi su ikon infallibly ayyana akidarsu. Mun gani a cikin Linjila, a gaskiya, cewa, babban firist, Kayafa, kiyaye shi kyautar annabci duk da ya zunubi (gani John 11:49-52, a kasa "Ex Cathedra da Musa").

Church ba ya tsaya saboda ta shugabannin 'sirri tsarkake, amma saboda Almasihu wa'adin aika da Ruhu Mai Tsarki ya shiryar da ita "cikin dukan gaskiya" (John 16:13).

Abin Shin, Muhawara kan Papal rashin kuskuren?

Matiyu 16:23
A cikin kokarin ƙi yarda Papal rashin kuskuren, detractors sau da yawa koma zuwa Matiyu 16:23 a cikin abin da Yesu ya tsauta Peter, yana cewa "Ka yi nesa da ni, Shaiɗan,! Kai ne mai abu mai hana mini; a gare ku ba a gefen Allah, amma mutane. "Ubangiji ya zargi Peter ta wannan hanya, domin Manzo, yanã jãyayyar tunkuɗẽwa Yesu don kauce wa da Passion, a sakamako kama da Shaiɗan ya waɗanda suka jarabce Yesu ya bar wa manufa (gani Matiyu 4:1, et al.). Da ya ke tsauta ba cuta Bitrus rashin kuskuren, duk da haka, tun lokacin da Manzo kalmomin dokoki ne wani erroneous masu zaman kansu hukunci da ba a yaudarar koyarwa.

Galatiyawa 2:11
Wani nassi, abin da wasu suka yi ĩmãni karyata Bitrus rashin kuskuren, An samu a karo na biyu babi na Saint Bulus Wasika zuwa ga Galatiyawa, da ya tuno da adawa da Bitrus a kan karshen ta ƙi da zama da kuma ci tare da Al'ummai sabobin tuba (2:11). Duk da haka, saboda Bulus tsauta ya yi da wani laifi "na hanya da ba na koyaswar,"Bitrus rashin kuskuren da aka ba a batun (Tertullian, A Demurrer ta haramta madaidaici 23:10).

Wasu gane ba da kyau wannan nassi a matsayin hujja da Bitrus kasawarmu, cikin adu'a wa Bulus. A sosai cewa Paul ya sa irin wannan batu da ya tsaye har zuwa Peter, duk da haka, ya nuna ya yi ĩmãni ya jawabi a m. Kamar yadda Saint Augustine ya lura, "Peter ya bar wa waɗanda da suka zo bayan shi abin kõyi, cewa, idan a kowane lokaci sun karkata daga tsakar hanya, kada su yi zaton shi daga ƙarƙashinsu su yarda gyara daga waɗanda suka yi su yayanka " (Wasika zuwa Jerome 82:22; ga kuma Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica 2:33:4).

BAD popes
Yayin da karya dõge a wasu da'ira cewa mafi yawan popes kasance mai girma masu zunubi, gaskiya ne mafi Bitrus maye kasance mutanen fice nagarta. Masu sukar sami shi m, Duk da haka, mu haskaka da alfãsha daga 'yan popes kan tsarkake na mutane da yawa.

Katolika taba ƙaryata game da popes ake auku mutane bukatar ceto kamar kowa. Abin Katolika nace a kan, duk da haka,-and Abin da tarihi take ɗauke fitar-da yake cewa babu shugaban Kirista da ya taɓa hukuma sanar da kuskure a kan imani da kuma rayuwa mai kyau, kuma bã ta sabawa yaudarar hukuncin wani wanda ya riga ko majalisa.

A koyaswa mutuncin papacy ya tsaya a kan wani da dukan zargin husũma sun tãyar da shi. Kowane harka, lokacin da warware daga anti-Katolika hargitsi da kuma dauka a da ta dace tarihi da tauhidin mahallin, nuna banmamaki mutuncin Katolika akidarsu, duk da dukan-ma-adam yanayin da Church shugabannin.3

Tsohon Cathedra da Mũsã

Lokacin da Paparoma magana infallibly, ya ce za a magana tsohon cathedra, wanda yake shi ne Latin for "daga kujera." A ra'ayi na farko wurin zama na dalĩli ya zo daga Tsohon Alkawali, a cikin abin da Musa ya zauna a hukuncin da mutane (gani Fitowa 18:13).

Musa dalĩli, ma, An bar ta hanyar line na maye (gani Maimaitawar Shari'a, 17:8-9; 34:9). A gaskiya, da Wurin zama Musa zauna aiki har zuwa lokacin da Almasihu, kamar yadda Yesu da kansa ya saukar, yana cewa, "A malaman Attaura da Farisiyawa zauna a Musa wurin zama; don haka gudanar da aiki da kuma kiyaye abin da suke faɗa maka, amma ba abin da suke aikatãwa; domin su yi wa'azi, amma kada ka gudanar da aiki " (gani Matiyu 23:1-3).

A cikin Bisharar Yahaya Saint mun ga majalisa na manyan firistoci da Farisiyawa convening karkashin ikon babban firist Kayafa (11:49). A majalisa, Kayafa lafazi da annabcin, "Yana da kuxi a gare ku cewa mutum ɗaya ya mutu saboda jama'a, da kuma cewa dukan al'umma kada ya lalace " (11:50). Kamar yadda John bayanin kula, Kayafa "bai ce wannan na kansa bisa, amma (sabõda da) kasancewa babban firist a shekaran " (11:51).

Ta haka ne, Allah ya ci gaba da magana a cikin mãsu mayẽwa Musa (ko da kuwa su taƙawa ko mugunta). Peter cika irin wannan rawa a sabon alkawari, bauta wa kamar yadda Almasihu duniya wakilin ko vicar ta hanyar da wanda Allah yayi magana a kan mutãne.

Daidai da, da yawa da wuri rubuce-rubucen a kan papacy koma zuwa Mosaic hadisin da mufuradi, iko kujera. Misali, da Muratorian guntu, rubuta a Roma a kusa da A.D. 170, jihohin, "Popular kwanan nan a zamaninmu, ... Bishop Pius, zauna a kujera na coci na birnin Roma. "

Haka, Saint Cyprian, da Bishop na Carthage, rubuta a 251, yi magana akan wannan wurin zama na dalĩli (gani Wasika zuwa Antonianus 55:8), da kuma wani lokaci kafin shekara 325, wani m mawãƙi na Gaul ayyana, "A cikin wannan kujera a cikin abin da shi kansa ya zauna, Peter, A m Roma, umurce Linus, na farko zabe, su zauna " (Na karya-Tertullian, Waka ta haramta da Marcionites 3:276-277).

Saint Macarius na Misira (d. ca. 390) ya rubuta: "Domin na farko da Musa da Haruna, a lokacin da wannan aikin firist ya nasu, sha wahala da yawa; da Kayafa, a lokacin da yake da shi su kujera, tsananta, kuma Allah wadai da Ubangiji. ... Bayan haka Musa ya yi nasara da Bitrus, wanda ya aikata zuwa ga hannayensu da sabon Church of Almasihu, da kuma na gaskiya firist " (Homily 26).

Kirista Unity

A charism na infallibly a fassara rukunan shi ne instrumental ga Paparoma ta manufa da in kasance bayyane ãyã, kuma tushen Kirista hadin kai.

Paparoma ta rawar da samar da koyaswa hadin kai ga dukan muminai aka nuna Yesu a Lãhira bukin a lõkacin da Ya ce wa Bitrus, "Simon, Simon, sai ga, Shaiɗan ya bukaci a yi ka, dõmin ya raraka ku kamar alkama, amma na yi addu'a ku ba, kada bangaskiyarka ta kāsa; kuma a lõkacin da ka kunna sake, karfafa 'yan'uwanku " (Luka 22:31-32).

Bitrus da aka bai da taƙawa na mai gaskatãwa ga ĩmãni da sãshe. Don ba dama shi ya yi wannan, Yesu ya yi alkawari zuwa bã shi da wani addini da ba zai gaza, da ke, kyautar rashin kuskuren. Saboda haka yana da cewa wadanda suka kasance masu biyayya ga Petrine dalĩli da yaƙĩni da sanin su suna da ha in koyaswa da dukan Church da kuma kyakkyawan tare da Almasihu, Shugaban na Church. Conversely, waɗanda suka yi ware kansu daga wannan dalĩli-, irin su lapsed Katolika, Eastern Orthodox Ikklisiya, da Protestant al'umma-sha wahala gudana rabo da jayayya.4

Ayan My Tumaki

Yesu ya sabunta ga hukumar Bitrus kamar yadda ya vicarious makiyayi a kan gaba daga cikin Tekun Galili a zamanin bin iyãma. Akwai, Yesu ya tambaye shi ya tabbatar da soyayya a gare shi sau uku, m zuwa Bitrus baya musun (gani Matiyu 26:34, et al.).

Bayan kowace affirmation na soyayya, Yesu ya fada masa sanar da kuma kula da tumakin da, yana cewa, "Ciyar ta 'yan raguna. ... Ayan ta tumaki. ... Feed ta tumaki " (John 21:15, 16, 17). Ubangiji ya ba su bar dukiya na tumaki, domin Ya ci gaba da kiran su kansa, alhãli kuwa entrusting da su zuwa Peter.5 Domin Paparoma mu cika da ofishin vicarious makiyayi, don tabbatar da Yesu tumaki da ake ciyar da cikar saukar gaskiya, shi wajibi ne a gare shi da za a safeguarded daga koyarwa kuskure. Don haka ya kasance a gare kusan biyu millennia; don haka zai zama har da Ubangiji zai dawo.

  1. Gaskiya ne cewa da ikon daura da sako-sako da aka ma aka ba wa Manzanni a matsayin kungiyar a Matiyu 18:18, amma ikon da mabuɗan aka tanada Peter kadai. Kamar yadda maye wa Manzanni, Katolika bishops da na gama da iko, ka dauki dogmatically dauri yanke shawara, matuƙar an tattara a cikin wani ecumenical majalisa (a majalisa mai wakiltar dukan, duniya Church) da kuma aiki a tarayya da na Bishop na Roma, Bitrus gaje.
  2. Ga wani in-zurfin binciken da Bitrus ofishin a hasken Ishaya 22, ga Stephen K. Ray, Bayan Wannan Rock (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999), p. 265.
  3. Ga wani sosai da alhakin handling na daban-daban rigima aukuwa a tarihin papacy ganin Warren Carroll, A History of Kirista, Vols. 1-5 (Front Royal, Virginia: Kirista Press, 1985); Har ila yau, Patrick Madrid, Paparoma Fiction (San Diego: Basilica Press, 1999).
  4. Da rarraba a tsakãnin Eastern Orthodox Ikklisiya o ƙarin tabbatar da zama al'adu a yanayi, alhãli kuwa da rarraba a tsakãnin lapsed Katolika da kuma cikin Protestantism yawanci yakan faru tare koyaswa Lines. Shi zai kuma za a lura cewa a Eastern Ikklisiya, waɗanda suka yi kiyaye wani fiye ko žasa ajizai ƙungiyar da Roma tun ta goma sha ɗaya na ƙarni sãɓãni kawai sabõda, division ya matsakaici ta kwatanta da sauti koyaswa na da, ga mafi part, An riƙe. Domin Protestantism, a wannan bangaren, abin da cikakken detachment daga Roma ta dalĩli da aka samu a na asali tenet, division ya sha musantawa, sakamakon shi dubun-na-dubban gasar denominations.
  5. Dubi Scott Butler, Norman Dahlgren, da kuma Rev. Mr. David Hess, Yesu, Bitrus da Kunamu (Santa Barbara, California: Queenship Publishing Company, 1996), p. 59; cf. Matt. 9:36-38.