Yog Peter Puas nyob rau hauv lub nroog Loos?

Painting of the Crucifixion of Saint Peter by CaravaggioSome deny that Saint Peter was ever in Rome because the Bible does not record his activity there.

Yet Peter himself indicates his presence in Rome in Scripture in the concluding words of his Thawj Tsab Ntawv, hais tias, “She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen, sends you greetings; and so does my son Mark” (5:13).

“Babylon” was commonly used by the Christians in the first century as a code name for Rome–saib, piv txwv li, lub Phau Ntawv Qhia Tshwm, 14:8; 16:19.

Lub Muratorian Fragment (raws li. 170) explains that Peter’s martyrdom was omitted from the Tubtxib Tes Haujlwm ntawm cov Thwj Tim because Saint Luke chose only to record events which he had witnessed personally. Luke’s omission of Peter’s activity in Rome, yog li ntawd, yuav txhais tau tias tsuas yog hais tias nws thiab Peter tshwm sim tsis tau nyob rau hauv lub nroog nyob rau tib lub sij hawm.

Peter yuav tuaj mus rau tim Loos nyob ib ncig ntawm lub xyoo 42 A.D. thiab tuag muaj nyob rau hauv hais txog 67, tab sis qhov no tsis txhais hais tias nws tseem muaj lub sij hawm rau hauv lub intervening 25-xyoo lub sij hawm.

Nws yog deb tshaj yuav hais tias, muaj tsim Rome raws li lub tsev puag rau nws ua tub txib, nws teem tawm los ntawm lub capital haum nquag–txawm lub xyoo ntawm ib lub sij hawm.1

Thaum Petus yog tsis hais nyob rau hauv lub epistles los ntawm Paul tus raug kaw hauv Loos yog, muaj ib tug npaum nkaus rau nws nyob rau hauv Paul lub Tsab ntawv mus rau cov neeg Loos, muaj ib tug ob peb xyoos ua ntej lawm. Nyob rau hauv tsab ntawv ntawd, Paul qhia hais tias nws tau tos tuaj mus rau tim Loos mus tshaj tawm txoj xov "nyob qhov twg Khetos twb tau npe, tsam kuv ua rau lwm tus txiv neej lub hauv paus " (15:20).

Lub "lwm tus txiv neej,” who preached the Gospel in Rome before Paul, must be Peter. Since Jesus commanded the Apostles to “make disciples of all nations” (saib Mathais 28:19). Yog li ntawd, it is reasonable to expect that at least one of the Twelve had gone to Rome, the place where all nations met, and it seems only fitting that the first Apostle in Rome was Peter, the vicarious shepherd of Christ’s flock (John 21:15-17).

Painting of Christ Appearing to Saint Peter on the Appian Way by Annibale Carracci

Nyob rau hauv qhov tseeb, Peter had sown the seeds of Roman Christianity during his Pentecost sermon as the universal crowd that he addressed that day contained visitors from Rome (Tubtxib Tes Haujlwm ntawm cov Thwj Tim, 2:10).

These first converts would eventually blossom into the Church of Rome, tab sis yog lawv yuav tsum tau tus Thwj Tim txoj kev taw qhia nyob rau hauv thiaj li yuav tsim nyob rau hauv ib tug unified zej zog.2

Lub keeb kwm pov thawj rau Peter lub xub ntiag nyob rau hauv lub nroog Loos, muaj nyob rau hauv lub ntawmv ntawm lub Early Koom Txoos txiv, yog sawv daws pom thiab overwhelming.

Sau ntawv los ntawm lub nroog Loos, tsuas ib ob peb xyoo tom qab lub fact, Pope Saint Clement, uas tau paub ob Peter thiab Paul, xa mus rau lawv heroic martyrdoms (saib Tsab ntawv ntawm Clement rau cov neeg Kaulinthaus 5:1-7). Ib yam li ntawd, Saint Ignatius ntawm Antioch (c. 107 A.D.) hais rau cov Roman ncaj ncees, "Tsis li Petus thiab Povlauj tau, ua kuv hais kom koj. Lawv cov Thwj Tim, thiab kuv yog ib tug convict " (los ntawm cov Tsab ntawv ntawm Ignatius mus rau Loos, 4:3).

Nyob ib ncig ntawm lub xyoo 130, Saint Papias qhia tau tseeb hais tias Saint Mark tau ua hauj lwm raws li Peter lub pab nyob rau hauv lub nroog Loos (pom Peter lub Thawj Tsab Ntawv 5:13) thiab hais tias Mark lub Moo Zoo tsim los ntawm nws cov ntaub ntawv ntawm tus Thwj Tim txoj kev tshaj tawm txoj xov muaj (saib Piav qhia txog cov Sayings ntawm tus Tswv; Eusebius, Keeb kwm ntawm lub Koom Txoos 3:39:15 thiab kuj saib Irenaeus, Heresies 3:1:1).3

Painting of Saint Peter Consecrates Saint Lawrence as Deacon by Fra AngelicoNtxiv mus, nyob rau hauv hais txog 170, Dionysius, lub Npis Sov ntawm lub moos Kaulinthaus, sau ntawv mus rau Pope Saint Soter, "Koj muaj kuj, los ntawm koj tus heev cov lus ntuas, coj ua ke cov cog uas tau ua los ntawm Peter thiab Paul ntawm Rome thiab nyob hauv lub nroog Kauleethaus; rau ob qho tib si ntawm lawv xwm yeem cog nyob rau hauv peb lub moos Kaulinthaus thiab qhia peb; thiab ob xwm yeem, qhia piv nyob rau hauv ltalis, raug kev txom nyem raug luag muab tua nyob rau tib lub sij hawm " (Tsab ntawv mus rau Soter ntawm Rome 2:25:8).

Saint Irenaeus ntawm Lyons (c. 185) xa mus rau Peter tus ua si nyob rau hauv lub nroog Loos tseeb, hu mus rau lub tsev teev ntuj ntawm Rome “qhov loj tshaj thiab feem ntau ancient tsev teev ntuj hu mus rau tag nrho cov, nrhiav thiab txhim tsa ntawm Rome los ntawm ob feem ntau glorious Thwj Tim, Peter thiab Paul” (tiv thaiv Heresies, 3:3:2).

Mus rau thaum xaus ntawm lub thib ob xyoo pua, Saint Clement ntawm Alexandria paub tseeb tias Mark tau ua hauj lwm raws li Peter lub secretary nyob rau hauv lub nroog Loos (saib Fragment; Eusebius, Keeb kwm 6:14:6).

Thaum lub lem ntawm lub xyoo pua, Tertullian uas sau hais tias Clement raug tsa los ua nyob rau hauv lub nroog Loos los ntawm Peter nws tus kheej (saib Lub Demurrer Tawm tsam heretics 32:2). Ib tug ob peb xyoos tom qab, nws sau, "Cia peb kawm seb ... cov nyob ze Loos suab tawm, mus rau leej twg Petus thiab Povlauj bequeathed lub Moo Zoo thiab txawm kaw nws nrog lawv cov ntshav " (tiv thaiv Marcion 4:5:1).

Nyob ib ncig ntawm tib lub sij hawm, ib tug Roman presbyter npe Caius qhia tau tseeb hais tias Peter twb faus rau Vatican toj. "Kuv yuav taw tes tawm lub trophies ntawm cov Thwj Tim,"Nws hais tias. "Yog hais tias koj txaus siab mus rau lub Vatican los yog mus rau lub Ostian Way [qhov twg Peter thiab Paul yog faus feem], koj yuav nrhiav tau cov trophies ntawm cov neeg uas nrhiav tau lub Koom Txoos no " (Disputation nrog Proclus; Eusebius, Keeb kwm 2:25:7). Saint Hippolytus ntawm Rome (d. 235) sau, "Peter tshaj tawm txoj Moo Zoo nyob rau hauv Pontus, thiab Kalatias, thiab Cappadocia, thiab Betania, thiab Ltalis, thiab cov teb chaws Asia, thiab tom qab ntawd tuag saum ntoo khaublig los ntawm Nero nyob rau hauv lub nroog Loos nrog nws lub taub hau downwards, raws li nws tau nws tus kheej qhov kev kawm raug kev txom nyem nyob rau hauv uas yam " (Nyob rau hauv Kaum Ob tug Thwj Tim 1).

Cov tshuaj account ntawm Peter tuag saum Ntoo khaublig thiab burial (thiab muaj nyob rau hauv lub nroog Loos) twb paub tseeb hais tias nyob rau hauv 1968 thaum nws cov pob txha tau rediscovered nyob rau hauv ib tug thawj-xyoo pua ntxa nyob ncaj qha rau hauv qab lub ntsiab thaj ntawm Saint Peter Basilica nyob rau hauv lub nroog Loos. Tus Thwj Tim tus pob txha twb pom remarkably lawm tsuas yog hais tias tus taw twb ploj lawm, tawm tswv yim rau cov tub rog tej zaum yuav muaj tshem tawm cov neeg tuag lub cev los ntawm tus ntoo khaub lig los ntawm txiav tawm tus taw, corroborating tus ancient kev lig kev cai hais tias Petus twb tuag saum ntoo khaublig upside down.4

  1. mob CF lub cev. Warren H. Carroll, Ib tug keeb kwm ntawm Christendom, vol. 1 (Pem hauv ntej muaj koob muaj npe, Virginia: Christendom Xovxwm), p. 420.
  2. Nyob rau hauv Lub qee ntawm Calvary, Henry ncuav mog qab zib, raug nplua nyob rau hauv Lub Official Legion ntawm Mary Handbook, mus ib kauj ruam ntxiv, tsom kwm, "Lub Koom Txoos ntawm lub neej yav tom ntej, uas yuav tsum tau hu ua lub Koom Txoos Roman, pib nyob rau hauv ib tug mysterious yam nyob ib ncig ntawm Calvary cov nuj nqi uas nws twb destined mus ua kom tiav nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb no. Cov Loos nws yog leej twg muaj tau lub neeg thiab kom nws nyob rau hauv lub xub ntiag ntawm cov neeg. Cov yav tom ntej cov neeg saib xyuas ntawm cov kev sib sau ntawm lub Koom Txoos yuav tsis kam rhuav lub tunic ntawm Yexus. Cov depositories ntawm txoj kev ntseeg yuav tsum yog tus thawj sau thiab uphold tus thawj xib fwb dogma ntawm tus tshiab txoj kev ntseeg-lub royalty ntawm lub Nazarene. Lawv yuav muab lawv lub siab ntawm lub caij thaum cov kev txi yuav consummated hais tias: 'Muaj tseeb tiag, qhov no yog Vajtswv tus Tub.' Ntsig, nrog rau cov tib hmuv uas yuav qhib mus txog rau lub Moo Zoo rau tag nrho cov kev loj ntawm lub ntug, lawv yuav qhib lub plawv dawb huv lub Master, los ntawm whence txaus ntws ntawm benediction thiab ntawm lub supernatural lub neej. Vim tag nrho tib neeg yog ua txhaum ntawm lub ntawm tus Txhiv Dim, txij li thaum tag nrho cov tau steeped lawv txhais tes nyob rau hauv nws , thiab txij li thaum yog li ntawd lub neej yav tom ntej lub tsev teev ntuj yuav tsis tau tuaj tab sis los ntawm culprits, cas nws tsis zoo li li tab sis yog cov neeg Loos, raws li thaum ntxov raws li lub sij hawm ntawm Calvary, twb, tab sis yog tsis nco qab li, inaugurating, substantiating, lawv tsis txawj tuag destiny? Tus ntoo khaub lig twb tas lawm nyob rau hauv xws li ib tug txoj hauj lwm tias tom qab Yexus twb muab rau Yeluxalees, thaum nws lub ntsej muag yog rau lub sab hnub poob, towards the Eternal City” (Dublin: Concilium Legionis Mariae, 1993, pp. 339-340).
  3. Tertullian, a century later, would go so far as to say, "(The Gospel) issued by Mark may be affirmed to be Peter’s, whose interpreter Mark was” (tiv thaiv Marcion 4:5:3).
  4. Carroll, vol. 1, p. 445, n. 143; the author referenced John E. Walsh, The Bones of St. Peter (Garden City, New York, 1982), pp. 164-165.