Je li Isus prisutan u Euharistiji?

Catholics believe that the Holy Eucharist is really the Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity of Jesus Christ, under the appearances of bread and wine. While this belief can seem strange to non-Catholics, it is backed up by Sacred Scripture, as well as early Christian historical documents.

The Gospels tell us that on the night Jesus was betrayed He shared a Passover meal with the Twelve Apostles, the Last Supper. The Passover is the ritual meal eaten by the ancient Israelites on the eve of their liberation from bondage in Egypt. God instructed them to slaughter a lamb without blemish, put some of its blood upon the doorframe of their houses, and then roast and eat its flesh (Izlazak 12:5, 7-8).

Isus, whom the Bible calls “the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world” (Ivan 1:29), is the fulfillment of the Passover lamb. Just as the Passover lamb was without blemish, so Jesus is without sin. Just as the people put the lamb’s blood upon the wood of their doorframes, His blood was upon the wood of the Cross.

Isto tako, the Last Supper is the fulfillment of the Passover meal, eaten as it was on the eve of mankind’s liberation from sin. On this night the Lamb of God gave His own Flesh and Blood to be eaten by the faithful sakramentalno under the form of bread and wine.

Uzimajući kruh, to blagoslov, razbijanje, i distribuciju među apostolima, On je rekao, "Uzeti, jesti; ovo je moje tijelo " (Matthew 26:26). Potom je uzeo kalež, koji je i blagoslovio, i dade im, kazivanje, "Pijte iz nje, svi vi; za to je moja krv Saveza, koja se prolijeva za sve za oproštenje grijeha " (Matthew 26:27-28). Iako je Isus često metaforički govorio tijekom svoje službe, u ovom ključnom trenutku je otvoreno progovorio. "Ovo je moje tijelo," On je rekao, without further explanation. "Ovo je moja krv." Teško je zamisliti kako je Gospodin mogao biti izravniji.

Isusovo ustanovljenje Euharistije na Posljednjoj večeri ispunjava svoju poznatu kruh života propovijedi, recorded in the sixth chapter of The Gospel According to Saint John. Ova propovijed uvodne umnažanja kruhova i ribe, in which thousands are miraculously fed from a tiny amount of food (Ivan 6:4). This event is an Eucharistic metaphor, occurring as it does during Passover and involving the same formula Jesus would later use at the Last Supper—taking the loaves, zahvaljujući, te ih distribuira (Ivan 6:11). Kada su se ljudi vrate na sljedeći dan da zahtijevaju znak od njega, podsjetivši kako su njihovi preci bili dani manu u pustinji (vidjeti Ex. 16:14 ff.), the Lord tells them,"Ja sam kruh života; he who comes to me shall not hunger, tko vjeruje u mene, neće ožednjeti nikada " (Ivan 6:35).

Iako su mu riječi čine Židovi nelagodu, Isus ne jenjava, Njegov govor stalno raste više grafički, “I am the living bread which came down from heaven; Ako tko jede od ovoga kruha, živjet će uvijeke; and the bread which I shall give for the life of the world is my flesh” (6:51). Because He equates the Bread that is to be eaten with His Flesh that is to suffer and die, we know He cannot be speaking symbolically, for this would mean His Flesh that suffered and died was merely a symbol!

To this the people ask, "Kako nam ovaj može dati nam svoje tijelo za jelo?" (6:52). Unatoč njihovom zaprepaštenja, Jesus speaks all the more emphatically,

"Uistinu, uistinu, Ja vam kažem, ako ne jedete tijela Sina Čovječjega i ne pijete krvi njegove, nemate života u sebi!; Tko blaguje tijelo moje i pije krv moju, ima život vječni, i ja ću ga uskrisiti u posljednji dan. Tijelo je moje jelo istinsko, i krv je moja piće istinsko. Tko jede moje tijelo i pije moju krv, u meni ostaje, i ja u njemu. Kao što je mene poslao živi Otac, i ja živim po Ocu, tako i onaj koji mene blaguje živjet će po meni. Ovo je kruh koji je sišao s neba, ne kao što je onaj koji jedoše očevi i umro; Tko jede ovaj kruh, živjet će uvijeke " (6:53-58).

Non-Catholic Christians, who interpret Ivan 6 symbolically, often point to the saying of Jesus that follows His Bread of Life Sermon: “It is the spirit that gives life, the flesh is of no avail; the words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life” (6:63).

Jesus cannot mean His own Flesh, iako, premda, mada, zaista, when He says, “The flesh is of no avail,” because that would mean His death on the Cross was of no avail!

Jesus uses the word “flesh” differently here than He does in the sermon. Here it refers not to the actual body, but to bodily or worldly thinking, reasoning with the flesh instead of the spirit (vidjeti Ivan 3:6, 12; 6:27; Pavla Poslanici Rimljanima 8:5-6 i njegov Prva Poslanica Korinćanima 2:14-3:3). Jesus is simply saying that it is impossible to understand His Bread of Life teaching by human reason alone; one needs to think in a spiritual way.

Slavljenje euharistije je središnje mjesto u životu ranih kršćana, koji "su se posvetili poučavanju i apostolskom, lomljenju kruha i molitvama " (Djela apostolska 2:42). Paul identifies both the manna and the rock that spewed forth water for the Israelites as Eucharistic metaphors. "Svi su jeli isto duhovno jelo i svi su isto duhovno piće," piše. "A pili su iz duhovne stijene koja ih je pratila, stijena bijaše Krist " (Pavla Prva Poslanica Korinćanima 10:3-4).

Even more explicitly, he goes on to admonish the Corinthians for their lack of reverence in receiving the Eucharist, pisanje:

“Whoever, dakle, jede kruh ili pije čašu Gospodnju nedostojno, bit će krivac tijela i krvi Gospodnje. 28 Neka svatko ispita samog sebe, pa tada od kruha jede i iz čaše pije. 29 Jer tko jede i pije ako ne razlikuje presudu tijelo jede i pije na sebe. 30 To je razlog zašto mnogi od vas su slabi i bolesni, a neki su umrli " (Prva Poslanica Korinćanima 11:27-30).

How could the unworthy reception of ordinary bread and wine amount to a sin against the Body and Blood of Jesus?

Early Church Teachings

We know the Catholic Church’s teaching on the Eucharist is in harmony with how the early Christians understood It. Ancient historical writings from the Apostolic Age forward affirm this. Take the writings of Saint Ignatius of Antioch, na primjer. Not only was Ignatius a Christian Bishop, but he had learned the faith seated at the feet of the Evangelist John, the one who wrote Ivan 6!

In about A.D. 107, Ignatius was arrested and taken to Rome to die a martyr’s death in the Colisseum.

On his way there, he composed seven letters, which have come down to us and which all reputable scholars agree are authentic.

U njegovom Pismo Smyrnaeans, he uses the Church’s Eucharistic teaching to defend the belief that Jesus had a real human body against the Docetists, who denied He had truly come in the flesh:

“Take note of those who hold heterodox opinions on the grace of Jesus Christ which has come to us, i vidjeti kako se suprotnosti njihova mišljenja su u Božjem umu. ... Oni su se suzdržati od euharistije i od molitve, jer oni ne priznaju da je Euharistija je tijelo našeg Spasitelja Isusa Krista, Meso koje je patio za naše grijehe i koje je Otac, u njegovu dobrotu, raised up again.” (6:2; 7:1)

Isto tijelo koje je patio i umro na križu za naše grijehe i vratio iz mrtvih, kao Ignacije je objašnjeno, je prisutan s nama u euharistiji (CF. Ivan 6:51).

Sveti Justin mučenik, writing around the year 150, only about fifty years after John’s death, rekao je euharistijski kruh i vino su dobili "nije tako česta pojava kruha, ni zajedničku piće,"Jer su" tijelo i krv tog utjelovljenog Isusa " (Prvo Isprika 66).

u oko 185, Sveti Irenej iz Lyona, čiji je učitelj Sveti Polikarp iz Smirne (d. ca. 156) Također je znao Ivan, govorio o euharistiji u obrani tjelesno uskrsnuće protiv gnosticizma. "Ako se tijelo ne biti spremljena,"Tvrdi Saint, "zatim, u stvari, niti je Gospodin nas otkupi svojom krvlju; a niti je čaša Euharistiju učestvovanje njegove krvi, niti je kruh koji lomimo na sudjelovanje njegova tijela (1 Cor. 10:16)" (protiv krivovjerja 5:2:2).

U 217, Irenaeus’ student, Sveti Hipolit Rimski, perceived Proverbs 9:2 as “refer[ring] to His honoured and undefiled body and blood, which day by day are administered and offered sacrificially at the spiritual divine table, as a memorial of that first and ever-memorable table of the spiritual divine supper” (Commentary on Proverbs).