Assumption nke Mary

Image nke Death nke Virgin site Duccio di Buoninsegna

Ọnwụ nke Virgin site Duccio di Buoninsegna

Mwere bụ nkwenkwe bụ na Mary, na mmechi nke okwu ya ndụ elu ala, e weere ahu na nkpuru obi-igwe. Ọ pụtara bụ na dị iche iche amaokwu Akwụkwọ Nsọ, eleghị anya, ọtụtụ n'ụzọ doro anya na Mkpughe 12, na e kwere na Ndị Kraịst oge mbụ, dị ka e gosiri n'oge ochie okpukpe na ihe odide. Ikekwe kasị ukwuu n'akụkọ ihe mere eme na-egosi nke mwere, ezie na, bụ eziokwu na ọ dịghị onye ma ọ bụ obodo ọ bụla kwuru na ha nwere Mary si ahu.1 One pụrụ ijide n'aka na nwere aru nke Mary, nke kasị nnọọ elu nke Saints, nọrọ n'ụwa, na-eso ụzọ Kraịst ga-abụrịrị maara nke ọma na ọ.

E nọ abụọ dị iche iche kweere banyere ebe Meri agafe: onye na-atụ aka Jerusalem; nke ọzọ Efesọs. Nke abụọ, ndị nke mbụ omenala tọrọ mma substantiated. Na-akpali mmasị ezu, ihe efu, na narị afọ mbụ n'ili chọpụtara n'oge ogwugwu na saịtị nke mbibi ya ke Jerusalem ke 1972 (-ahụ Bellarmino Bagatti, Michael Piccirillo, na Albert Prodomo, O.F.M., New Discoveries ke udi nke Virgin Mary ke Gethsemane, Jerusalem: Franciscan ígwè obibi akwụkwọ, 1975). Ụfọdụ ndị ọkà mmụta obi abụọ izi ezi nke a ili ebe ọ bụ na ọ bụghị kwuru na site ná mmalite Fathers nke biri ndụ na Palestine, dị ka Cyril nke Jerusalem (d. 386), Epiphanius (d. 403), na Jerome (d. 420). Ma, dị ka Archeologist Bellarmino Bagatti kwuru, Mary n'ílì e zeere ide site Kraịst oge mbụ bụ ndị Jentaịl na mmalite n'ihi na ọ we bilie n'elu ihe-onwunwe nke Judeo-Christian, onye “E weere schismatics bụrụ na ọ bụghị jụrụ okwukwe” (ibid., p. 15). N'ihi otu ihe ahụ, ihe nsọ ọzọ saịtị, dị ka Upper ime ụlọ, adịghị egosi na n'oge odide ma (ibid.). Ọ ga-eti nakwa na agha nke Roman General Titus obliterated Jerusalem ke isua 70, zoro n'ebe dị nsọ n'okpukpe ndị Juu na Christianity dị n'okpuru rubble. na 135, Eze Ukwu Hadrian bibiri akụkụ obodo ọzọ na awara awara nzube nke iwu n'ụlọ arụsị atop mkpọmkpọ ebe nke dị nsọ saịtị. The ntụpọ nke Meri agafe na ndị ọzọ dị nsọ ebe ndị nọgidere furu efu ruo mgbe narị afọ nke anọ ọ dịkarịa ala mgbe Eze Ukwu Constantine Onye Ukwu nke nta nke nta malite iweghachi Christianity si doo saịtị, malite na nke Holy Sepulchre na 336.] Mwere-enye ihe atụ nke a-eso ụzọ Kraịst na-esonụ mgbe Ya na a gụrụ mbilite n'ọnwụ, na-atụ aka na eziokwu nke ndị Kraịst nile na-atụ anya. Mee elu mee ala, ọ egosi bụghị ya ịdị nsọ, Ọzọkwa, ma na-idi nso nke Jesus, na onye na akaụntụ na ọ nabatara pụrụ iche prerogatives.

Mgbe ọ ka mgbe e kwere na Kraịst, mwere e eze kwuru, a malitere izi ozizi nke Catholic Church site Pope Pius XII na 1950. N'ezie, otu pụrụ ịhụ Chineke ji ịhụnanya na amamihe na ekwu Meri n'anụ mbilite n'ọnwụ ka ụwa na midpoint nke a na narị afọ na-agba àmà ọtụtụ ili ikpe na-ezighị megide ùgwù nke mmadu. Na oge nke ndị malitere izi ozizi kpọsara, ụwa na-abụrụ si n'ọnọdụ ọjọọ dị n'ogige ọnwụ ndị Nazi na swiftly-eru nso nke ala-echebe okowot nke nwa e bu n'afọ. Ama nke nwaanyị, ya na isi-ọrụ nke ịbụ nne nwere karịsịa e tiri site ndị ụwa, nke ka lekwasịrị anya inordinately n'elu ya mputa mma ma chọọ mgbe iji belata ya ka onye a bụrụ agụụ ihe ọjọọ. N'ụzọ dị nnọọ iche ná ndị a nkwupụta nke àgwà agụghị ọnwụ n'oké, Meri Assumption n'ọnu ùgwù nke womanhood na nke ahụ mmadụ, nke mmadu, n'ụzọ dị ike.

Ascension nke Virgin site Albrecht oké mmanya

Ascension nke Virgin site Albrecht oké mmanya

The malitere izi ozizi nke mwere dŽrŽ ya Church isi na-eri nri atụrụ Kraịst (CF. John 21:15-17; Luke 10:16) na Onye Nzọpụta anyị kwere nkwa na ya Church ga akụzi eziokwu (CF. John 14:26; 16:13; Matt. 16:18-19; 1 Tim. 3:15). Nke a adịghị agha agha ikike ka mgbe e tụkwasịrị obi ka Chineke ezi-akụzi mgbe esemokwu nwere bilitere n'etiti ndị kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi. Anyị na-ahụ nke a na ọkpụkpọ nke Council of Jerusalem (Ọrụ 15); na ihe Pọl achọ nke onyenchịkwa’ ihu ọma ikwusa ozi ọma ọtụtụ afọ mgbe ya akakabarede (Gal. 2:1-2); na na omume ndị nke ikpeazụ Ecumenical Councils, nke kpọsaa na divinity Kraịst na 325, na divinity nke Mmụọ Nsọ na 381, na Meri Chineke onodu na 431.

-theologically, mwere njikọ chiri anya N'Eburo njo ncheputa, nke na-ekwu na Mary, a pụrụ iche na amara na Chineke, e chebere si ebufe ntụpọ nke mmehie mbụ si akpa oge nke ya adị. Ya onwe si mmehie bụ isịne ná nkwa Chineke kwere n'elu Fall of Man ebe iro dịrị n'etiti ekwensu na Nne nke Mgbapụta (Gen. 3:15). Aga azụ n'oge, Ụka na-asọpụrụ Mary dị ka New Eve, kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi helpmate nke New Adam. Dị nnọọ ka nke mbụ Iv kwetara ụgha nke Setan, a daa angel, na site na-ajụ Chineke na atụmatụ me mmehie na ọnwụ n'ime ụwa; otú ahụ ka New Iv kweere eziokwu nke Gabriel, ihe Onyeisi Ndị Mmụọ Ozi, na ịdị na-ekwenyere na Chineke na nzube me nzọpụta na ndụ n'ime ụwa. Na-eche echiche Mary dị ka New Eve, Ọzọkwa, anyị na-aghọta na na orchestrating anyị sitere na Bible, Chineke na a ihe ijuanya n'ụzọ nkịtị nwesịrị ihe ndị mere anyị ọdịda. na mbụ, ọmụmaatụ, Adam we mbụ; na Iv e hiwere site n'anụ ahụ ya. Na mgbapụta, Mary, na New Eve, ụzọ bịara; na Christ, na New Adam, e hiwere site n'aka ya anụ. Coincidentally, bụ nke a mere na New ndu nwaanyị na nwoke a na nne na nwa, ọ bụghị di na nwunye dị ka Adam na Iv ama.

Na Mary nwere Iv ọcha n'ihu ọdịda pụtara na ọ bụ eleghị anya, e gbochiri ya ya ntaramahụhụ: mgbu na n'anụ ọnwụ (CF. Gen. 3:16, 19; Rom. 6:23). Ọbụna ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị gụpụ ihe ndị a kpamkpam, Otú ọ dị, o kwesịrị ekwesị ọ dịghị ihe ọzọ na-enweghị atụ graces e nyere ya na-amụ nwa na ọnwụ.2

Echichi nke Virgin site Gentile da Fabriano

Corontion nke Virgin site Gentile da Fabriano

Dị ka ọwụwa ozu nke ndi nso mgbe n'Obe (CF. Matt. 27:52), mwere bụ a precursor ka n'anụ mbilite n'ọnwụ nke ndị kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi na Ụbọchị Ikpe, mgbe ha gābu-kwa- “ejide elu … na n'ígwé ojii izute Onyenwe anyị na ikuku” (1 Thess. 4:17).3 The Bible adịghị emegide echiche nke a gụrụ ọtụtụ ndị chere n'ime eluigwe. Akwụkwọ Nsọ, Enoch na Elijah na-eweghara n'anụ ahụ inye heaven (CF. Gen. 5:24; 2 kgs. 2:11; nwere. 11:5). Ọ bụ eziokwu na Baịbụl anaghị n'ụzọ doro anya na haa na Mary e chere. Ma site n'otu aka ahụ, Bible adịghị agọnahụ ma ọ bụ na-emegide ya Assumption.4 Ọzọkwa, mgbe a kpọmkwem na akaụntụ nke mwere adịghị n'ihe Akwụkwọ Nsọ, ọ nwere ike inferred si paseeji ụfọdụ banyere ekebe ediomi, a ụdị Mary. Igbe e mere nke apụghị ire ure osisi machita na ọla-edo anāgwaghi n'ihi na nke ịdị nsọ nke ihe e mere ya na-ebu ihe ahụ (CF. Ex. 25:10-11); otú ahu Virgin bụ na e kere ime mmụọ na n'ụzọ anụ ahụ adị ọcha ma na incorruptibility n'ịkwadebe maka ịgba Ọkpara Chineke. Na Meri incorrupt ahu, Igbe nke na ogbugba ndu ohu, a ga-akpọga heaven na-owụt ke Psalm 132:8, nke na-ekwu, “Bilie, O nwe-ayi, na gaa na gi izu ike ebe, gi onwe-gi na igbe ihe-gi ike-.” Na Old-ndu ohu Igbe mysteriously hụghịzi na a n'otu isi ihe na akụkọ ihe mere eme na-ese onyinyo Anyị Lady si Assumption dị ka nke ọma.5 The dị nsọ arịa egosibeghị ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ ruo mgbe Apostle John na-ejide a ghọta nke ọ na-eme n'eluigwe, dị ka ọ na-akọwa na Mkpughe: “Mgbe ahụ bụ ụlọ nsọ Chineke na emeghere elu-igwe, na igbe ihe ọgbụgba ndụ ya hụrụ n'ime ụlọ nsọ ya … . Na a oké eduga na ya pụtara ke heaven, a nwaanyị uwe anyanwụ, na ọnwa n'okpuru ya n'ụkwụ na n'isi-ya okpu-eze nke kpakpando iri na abụọ” (11:19, 12:1). Ọhụụ Jọn nke Nne nke Mgbapụta bi n'anụ na paradise bụ kasị anyị nwere anya ya hụ na akaụntụ nke mwere. Ọ gara n'ihu ịkọwa na a weere n'eluigwe na-esonụ na Jehova Ascension. “nwa ya,” o kwuru, “e jidere aka Chineke nakwa n'ebe ocheeze ya, na nwaanyị wee gbaga n'ala ịkpa, bụ ebe o nwere ebe Chineke kwadebere, nke ha ga na iriju afọ maka otu puku, narị abụọ na iri isii n'ụbọchị” (12:5-6). N'otu aka ahụ ọ na-ekwu, “Nwaanyị ahụ e nyere ahụ nku abụọ nke nnukwu ugo, ka o wee fega si agwọ n'ala ịkpa, ebe ọ bụ na ike iriju afọ maka a oge, na ugboro, na ọkara otu oge” (12:14).6

Ndị mbụ extant odide na ọtụtụ ndị chere nwere dị iche apọkrịfa na pseudoepigraphical odide, nke ada n'okpuru izugbe isiokwu nke Itie nke Virgin Mary ma ọ bụ Agafe nke Mary. Ndị kasị ochie nke ndị a, kweere na e dere ha n'oge narị afọ nke abụọ site Leucius Karinus, a na-eso ụzọ Jọn, A na-eche ka a dabeere na n'elu ihe mbụ akwụkwọ si ndịozi oge, nke bụ agaghịkwa extant.7

Chọọchị mbụ kwenyere na agọzi Virgin bụ incorrupt na ahu na nkpuru obi n'ụzọ zuru ezu na-akwado mwere. The amaonye Letter na-Diognetus (CF. 125), dị ka ọmụmaatụ, na-ezo aka ya dị ka a Virgin na anyị agaghị aghọgbuli.8 N'ezie, ọtụtụ edemede oge ochie dere, ọtụtụ Ichi Saints Justin Martyr na (d. dị ka. 165) na Irenaeus nke Lyons (d. dị ka. 202), iche Mary na ya kwenyesiri ike Eve ya mmehie. Saint Hippolytus nke Rome (d. 235), a na-amụrụ nke Ireneaus, tụnyere Meri anụ ahụ na “apụghị ire ure osisi” Igbe (Commentary on Psalm 22). The n'okpuru gi ekpere, ekewet ke banyere ufọt ufọt narị afọ nke atọ, -akpọ Mary “naanị dị ọcha na naanị gọziri agọzi.”

Na Saint Ephraim Siria si Ukwe n'ụbọchị Ọmụmụ Kraịst, site n'etiti afọ ndị narị afọ nke anọ, eji imagery na-echeta, Mkpughe 12:4, Mary yiri ikwu ihe ga-conveyance nke ahu ya n'eluigwe, si, “The nwa ọhụrụ ka m na-ebu ka ebu m … . Ọ hulatara ya nku ma wee were m n'etiti nku ya na elu n'ime ikuku” (17:1). na 377, Saint Epiphanius nke Salamis dere, “Olee otú a ga nsọ Mary bụghị nwe ala-eze elu-igwe na anụ ahụ ya, ebe ọ bụ na ọ bụghị unchaste, ma ọ dissolute, mmê enye mgbe akwa iko, na ebe ọ bụ na ọ dịghị mgbe ihe ọjọọ ọ bụla dị ka anụ ahụ omume na-enwe nchegbu, ma ọ ka igwe anaghị?” (Panarion 42:12). Ụfọdụ kwuru na ọ pụghị kwere na mwere ebe o na-ebe a nke Meri bụla gụrụ gaa eluigwe na okwu nke odi n'iru. Ma o kwuru mgbe e mesịrị na otu akwụkwọ, “Ọ bụrụ na ọ e gburu, … mgbe ahụ o nwetara ebube ọnụ na nwụrụ n'ihi okwukwe, na ahu ya … bi n'etiti ndị na-enwe Zuru ike nke gọziri agọzi” (ibid. 78:23; mesiri ike kwukwara). Ndinọ ekikere esie on ya ọnwụ, ọ gara n'ihu ịsị na ma na

ọ nwụrụ ma ọ bụ anwụghị, … ẹbụk enye ma ọ bụ na-eli. … Akwụkwọ Nsọ nanị bụ nkịtị, n'ihi ịdị ukwuu nke prodigy, ka e wee ghara tie uche nke nwoke na oké ihe ijuanya. …

Ọ bụrụ na ndị nsọ Virgin bụ ihe nwụrụ anwụ ma e lie, n'ezie ya nāchi mere na ùgwù; ya abịa na njedebe, kasị dị ọcha ma kpukwasị okpueze site virginit. …

Ma ọ bụ ọ nọgidere na-adị ndụ. N'ihi na, Chineke, ọ bụghị-agaghị ekwe omume ime ihe ọ bụla ọ chọrọ; n'akụkụ aka nke ọzọ, ọ dịghị onye maara kpọmkwem ihe ya abịa na njedebe, (ibid. 78:11, 23).

Na Epiphanius amaghị nkọwa nke Meri agafe bụ n'ụzọ zuru okè kwere nghọta–Ndị Kraịst ka na-amaghị nkọwa nke ya na ọ bụ eleghị-OZI amaghị ma, n'ihi na ahu ya na e weere n'ime ihe nchọ n'ili.9 N'adịghị ka ndị ọzọ n'oge ndị so dee, Otú ọ dị, Epiphanius ẹse echepụta nkọwa maka onwe ya. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ maghị kpọmkwem ihe merenụ, ọ maara, na ìhè nke Mary zuru okè nke ịdị nsọ, na mbibi ya nwere ndidi ọrụ ebube–ihe ga- “tie uche nke nwoke na oké ihe ijuanya”–na na ya apụghị nọgideworo na ili. “Na Apocalypse of John,” Ọ chọpụtakwara, “anyị na-agụ na dragọn ahụ na-atụba ya onwe ya na nwaanyị na-mụsịrị nwa nwoke; ma nku ugo e nyere nwaanyị ahụ, na ọ ama nime ọzara, ebe dragọn ahụ apụghị inweta ya. Akpakayak emi etịbe ke Mary ikpe (Rev. 12:13-14)” (ibid. 78:11).

Ná mmalite nke narị afọ nke ise, ma ọ bụ tupu, mme-mme nke ncheta nke Mary–nke ahụ bụ, ncheta nke mbibi ya–e ẹkenam n'ime Eastern efe ofufe adịghị, na idobe ya n'etiti ndị kasị ochie nke Chọọchị ụbọchị ememe.10 Gburugburu afọ 400, Chrysippus nke Jerusalem okwu banyere Psalm 132, “The n'ezie eze Igbe, ndị kasị oké ọnụ ahịa Igbe, bụ mgbe-Virgin Theotokos; Igbe nke natara àkù nke ihe niile nsọ” (on Psalm 131(132)).

-Ekpe okpukpe so dee site na nke a otu oge, arụ ọrụ n'okpuru pen aha nke Saint Melito nke Sadis, a nso-dịkọrọ ndụ Leucius, akọcha ya n'ihi ịbụ “emerụ ndị kasị ochie ederede site n'ịkọwa ya n'echiche nke na na ekweghị na ozizi ndị ozi” (Bagatti, et al., p. 11). A na-ede mbọ iji weghachi ezi akaụntụ nke mwere, nke o boro ebubo Leucius nwere “emerụ ihe ọjọ pen” (Mbugharị nke Holy Virgin, Okwu Mbido).

na banyere 437, Saint Quodvultdeus kwuru ihe ga Woman na Mkpughe 12 dị ka agọzi Virgin, arịba ama, “Ka onye ọ bụla n'ime unu na-eleghara (eziokwu) na dragọn (na Apocalypse of Jọn onyeozi) bụ ekwensu; mara na-amaghị nwoke na-egosi Mary, ndị dị ọcha otu, onye mụrụ anyị dị ọcha n'isi” (Nke atọ okwuchukwu 3:5).

Na n'ihe dị ka n'etiti narị afọ nke ise, Saint Hesychius nke Jerusalem dere, “Igbe nke gi ido nsọ, na Virgin theotokos n'ezie. Ọ bụrụ na I bu pearl mgbe ahụ ọ ghaghị ịbụ na Igbe” (Okwuchukwu a na Holy Mary, Nne nke Chineke). Around 530, Oecumenius kwuru nke Mkpughe 12, “N'ụzọ ziri ezi, ka ọhụụ egosi ya n'eluigwe na ọ bụghị n'elu ụwa, dị ka dị ọcha mkpụrụ obi ma ahụ” (Commentary na Apocalpyse). Ede nke mwere nso na njedebe nke narị afọ nke isii, Saint Gregory nke Tours (n'adịghị Epiphanius) na-ezere enwe ihe-nkọwa nke crossings akụkọ. “Ma, le,” dere, sị Gregory, “ọzọ Onyenwe anyị guzoro n'akụkụ (-oZI); nsọ ahu (nke Mary) ọ na e nyere, O nyere iwu ka a na-weere na a ígwé ojii gaa na paradaịs” (Asatọ Books of Miracles 1:4).

Akatọ nke Church si Marian ozizi n'anya nke eziokwu ahụ bụ na ndị mbụ a maara akụkọ nke mwere-achọta apọkrịfa odide, na na Nna Chọọchị adịghị asụ ya n'ihu mbubreyo-narị afọ nke anọ.

Ọ bụkwa eziokwu, Otú ọ dị, na Fathers adịghị anya iji dozie okwukwe na mwere; ha nanị ekpuchie ọnụ na okwu–-enwetụbeghị ụdị ya stance ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụ a jụrụ okwukwe ozizi, karịsịa nyere ya jupụta ebe nile n'etiti ndị kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi. O yighị, n'ezie, na echiche nke Meri Assumption, nke kwekọrọ ịdị nsọ nke ahụ mmadụ, nwere ike na a malitere n'etiti ndị Nọstik, nyere na ha katọrọ ahu na ihe nile nke anụ ahụ. The Apocrypha, n'ezie, adịghị abụkarị ọrụ jụrụ okwukwe, ma nke ndị Kraịst Ọtọdọks na-achọ ịmanye nkọwa n'elu ezigbo ihe si ndụ nke Kraist na ndi nso nke na e uzọ ọzọ ekpuchiworị ihe omimi. Mgbe apocryphists embellished akụkọ nke mwere, ha agaghị dịrị ya. Eziokwu ahụ bụ na crossings adị fọrọ nke nta n'ebe nile Christian ụwa, -apụta n'akwụkwọ otutu asụsụ, gụnyere Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Coptic, syriac, Ethiopic, na Arabic, -egosi akụkọ nke Meri Assumption gbasara ihe n'eluigwe na ụwa ná mmalite narị afọ na, Ya mere, nke ndịozi si malite.

Ọ bụ ezie na Church ihe a niile matakwu nke ihe ize ndụ aka na ịdabere n'ọrụ nke a spurious ọdịdị, ọ pụghị ịgọpụ na ndụ nke eziokwu si nwee mmeri na ọtụtụ ndị dị otú ahụ ọrụ. Cheta, ọmụmaatụ, na Saint Jude na-ezo aka Assumption nke Moses na mbụ Enoch ya New Testament Akwụkwọ Ozi (ịhụ Jude 1:9, 14 iche.). Si amamihe kwuo,:

Anyị abụghị ndị amaghị na ọtụtụ n'ime ndị a na nzuzo akwụkwọ ndị na-emepụta site ikom, ama-ha leta. … Mere, anyị aghaghị iji ịkpachara anya na-anara a niile nzuzo odide na igbasa n'okpuru aha nke ndi nso … n'ihi na ụfọdụ n'ime ha e dere ibibi eziokwu nke anyị Akwụkwọ Nsọ na ịmanye a ozizi ụgha. N'akụkụ aka nke ọzọ, anyị ekwesịghị kpam kpam-ajụ odide nke nwere ike ịbụ uru na-awụfu ìhè na Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Ọ bụ ihe ịrịba ama nke a na oké madu ịnụ na-ebu ndụmọdụ nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ: “Test ihe nile; idowe ihe dị mma” (1 Thess. 5:21) (Akwụkwọ na-akọwa Matthew 28).

na 494, Pope Gelasius Saint, -achọ ịnọ na nche ahụ kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi megide nwere na-emerụ emerụ mmetụta nke ọtụtụ okpukpe odide nke-enyo enyo chepụtara ndị ahụ jupụtara Christian ụwa, nyegharị ndepụta nke bukwa ya akwụkwọ haziri ya buuru onye uzo, Pope Saint Damasus, tinyere ogologo katalọgụ nke zukwara adịghị anakwere Ụma-Akwukwọ Nsọ akwụkwọ.

-Emegide nke Church mere ka nke na eziokwu na bụ akwụkwọ apọkrịfa ide na ọtụtụ ndị chere a gụnyere n'etiti ndị a machibidoro iwu akwụkwọ na Gelasius’ decre, ma Pope ikpe bụ akwụkwọ apọkrịfa akaụntụ nke mwere, n'ezie, na ọ bụghị mwere onwe ya.

Apọkrịfa ndekọ nke ọzọ ekpe okpukpe kweere na otú ahu ikpe na iwu–na Protoevangelium nke James, dị ka ọmụmaatụ, Mkpughe kwuru na Ọmụmụ Kraịst; na Ọrụ nke Peter Mkpughe kwuru na Pita ozi ala ọzọ ọrụ na martyrdom na Rom. Ọbụna ihe ruo n'ókè, ihe odide nke Tertullian na-iwu, ezie na ihe odide ya, dị ka ọmụmaatụ, nanị isiokwu Baptism na nchegharị, chebe Ọtọdọks ọnọdụ na isiokwu ndị a. -eme Gelasius’ ikpe nke akwụkwọ ndị a bara na ojuju nke Baptism na nchegharị, mgbe ahụ, ma ọ bụ onye dị ya ime ihe na a ajụjụ nke Tertullian uma?

O doro anya na, machibido nke a akwụkwọ na Gelasian Iwu -apụghị kwuru na-abụ a N'ogbe ojuju nke akwụkwọ si isiokwu okwu ma ọ bụ ọdịnaya. N'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ, ọzọ mfọn ke oyom site Church na-were n'ezie ndị na-emerụ n'akwụkwọ ndị a. Ma ugbu a, ịtụkwasị ha n'okpuru mmachibido iwu ahụ akọ nyere ejighị ihe n'aka ndị gbara ha gburugburu.11

N'ihi na ndị na-achọ inweta na Gelasian Iwu ụfọdụ ikwere nke Papal Infallibility, ọ ga-ahụ kwuru na ihe machibido nke a akwụkwọ nwere ihe ọ bụla na-eme na Pope infallibility ebe ọ bụ na ọ bụ nanị a inye edinam, ọ bụghị ejikọrọ na akọwapụta nke malitere izi ozizi. site n'okike, a inye edinam bụ isiokwu ịgbanwe. Ọ na-anọchi na ebe naanị ọ bụrụhaala na-aghọta ihe iyi egwu dị adị; ozugbo iyi egwu mechaa, na ikpoasi ebuliwo. Na nke a karịsịa ikpe, dị ka Canon nke Bible na-eto na nnabata iyi egwu nke ndị na Apocrypha jụrụ oyi na mmachibido iwu ahụ adịkwaghị.

  1. Nke a bụ pụrụ iche na-egosi n'ezie nyere Christianity si penchant maka ichebe na ife saintly onwunwe–a na omume nke ụbọchị laghachi mmalite ụbọchị nke okwukwe dị ka Martyrdom of Saint Polycarp, esịnede n'etiti narị afọ nke abụọ, na-egosi.
  2. Mgbe ndị Katọlik omenala kwere Meri gụpụrụ mgbu, ọ e chere na ọ n'ezie na-ata ahụhụ ọnwụ iji n'ụzọ zuru okè kwekọọ na nwa-ya nwoke, onye ezie emeghị mmehie nabatara ọnwụ (CF. Phil. 2:5 iche.). Na akọwapụta na ozizi nke mwere, Pius XII ẹse si maka ụfọdụ ọ nwụrụ, nanị na-ekwu na o “dechara N'ezie nke ya ndụ n'ụwa” (Munificentissimus Deus 44).
  3. The Catechism of the Catholic Church na-akụzi, “Mwere nke agọzi Virgin bụ a erikwa òkè ya Ọkpara Resurrection na atụmanya nke mbilite n'ọnwụ nke ndị Kraịst ndị ọzọ … . Ọ na-ama mbak ke ebube ya Ọkpara Mbilite n'Ọnwụ, Mfịn mbilite n'ọnwụ nke ndị nile so na ya Isi” (966, 974).
  4. E nwere ndị ọzọ dị ịrịba ama mere ná ndụ nke ndịozi Church nke na-omitted si New Testament nakwa, dị ka martyrdoms nke Pita na Pọl, na mbibi nke Jerusalem site ndị agha Rom n'afọ 70. Dị ka Odide Muratori, esịnede ke Rome ke ikpeazụ nke narị afọ nke abụọ, Luke naanị gụnyere ke Ọrụ nke Ndịozi ihe o àmà jiri anya ya na. Nke Luke ẹse ide ihe ndị ọ bụghị ya na-hụrụ na-enyere anyị aka ịghọta ihe mere mwere e dere, maka ya wee ebe n'ime a n'ili. N'adịghị ka Jehova rịgoro, a ọha omume hụrụ ọtụtụ, mwere enweghị ji anya.
  5. Nke abụọ Maccabee 2:5 na-ekwu na Jeremiah akara Igbe na a abaitiat ke Obot Nebo tupu Babilọn mbuso agha nke Jerusalem na 587 b.c. (CF. 2 kgs. 24:13, et al.).
  6. Protestantism nēche ahụ a Woman dị ka ma a atụ ọgụgụ nke Israel ma ọ bụ na-Church (CF. Gen. 37:9). Katọlik na-anabata ndị a ịkọwa, ma gbatịrị ha na-agụnye na a kpọmkwem ụzọ Mary, na n'onwe na ndị Chineke. Israel mụụrụ Christ n'ụzọ ihe atụ; Mary mụụrụ ya n'ụzọ nkịtị. N'ikwu banyere ihe odide a, Saint Quodvultdeus (d. 453), na Bishop nke Carthage na a na-eso ụzọ Saint Augustine, dere na Mary “nwekwara gụnyere onwe ya a na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ndị nsọ na chọọchị: ya bụ, otú mgbe amị a nwa, ọ nọgidere na-amaghị nwoke, nke mere na chọọchị n'ime oge na-agba ya òtù, ma ọ dịghị ida-amaghị nwoke” (Nke atọ okwuchukwu na Creed 3:6; -ahụ nwekwara Clement nke Alexandria, Ozizi nke Children 1:6:42:1).

    The motif nke ndị Chineke na-agbapụ “n'elu nku ugo” ka a ebe mgbaba pụrụ ịchọta ofụri Old Testament (ịhụ Ex. 19:4; Ps. 54 (55):6-7; Isa. 40:31, et al.). Nkwa Chineke kwere “agbanahụ n'ala ịkpa” na-ukwuu mezuru na mwere, Mary ịbụ kachanụ nnọchiteanya nke ndị Ya.

    The atụ ihe edere na Mkpughe 12 ka a oge nke oge, “otu puku, narị abụọ na iri isii n'ụbọchị” na “maka a oge, na ugboro, na ọkara otu oge” (6, 14), nwere ike na-anọchi anya oge nke mkpagbu, nke Church ga-atachi obi, tupu abụọ na-abịa nke Christ.

    amaokwu 12:17 kwuru ekwensu, infuriated site nwaanyị ahụ ụzọ mgbapụ, setịpụrụ “ka agha na ndị ọzọ ụmụ ya, na ndị na-Chineke nyere n'iwu ma na-enye àmà Jesus.” Na-eso ụzọ Kraịst na-atụle “na ike nke ụmụ ya” akwado ndị na-Church si akwanyere Mary dị ka Nne nke Kraịst niile (CF. Isa. 66:8; John 19:26-27).

  7. Mgbe otu mgbe na crossings e chere na a malitere dịghị tupu narị afọ nke anọ, ụfọdụ nkà mmụta okpukpe okwu eji na Leucius’ akwụkwọ gosi ihe si malite ma nke abụọ ma ọ bụ narị afọ nke atọ (Bagatti, et al., p. 14; Bagatti referenced na ọrụ ya, S. Peter na “Dormitio Mariae,” p. 42-48; Searches na ọdịnala ndị Ọnwụ nke Virgin, p. 185-214).
  8. The n'ezie ederede na-agụ: “Ọ bụrụ na ị na-agba osisi nke (ihe ọmụma) na ịghọrọ mkpụrụ ya, ị ga-ekpokọta na ihe ndị na-na-achọsi ike n'anya Chineke, ihe na agwo ike metụ ma aghụghọ pụrụ gaghị emerụ. Mgbe ahụ Eve na-adịghị rafuru, ma a Virgin na-achọta pụrụ ịtụkwasị obi” (Letter na-Diognetus 12:7-9). Banyere akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ a, Cyril c. Richardson comments, “Ọ bụ pụtara doro anya na-ede akwụkwọ na-ezube ikwu nkịtị patristic iche … n'etiti Eve, na-enupụ isi nne ọnwụ, na Mary, na-erube isi nne nke ndụ, nke ikpe parthenos nke ederede ga-gọziri agọzi Virgin Mary” (Early Christian Fathers, New York: Collier dere Akwụkwọ, 1970, p. 224, n. 23). Hilda Graef concurred, si, “Ọ fọrọ nke nta yiri ka ọ bụrụ Mary a na-akpọ Eve enweghị ihe ọ bụla nwetakwuo nkọwa” (Mary: A History of Ozizi na Nsọpụrụ, vol. 1, New York: Sheed na Ward, 1963, p. 38).
  9. N'ụzọ dị iche na crossings akaụntụ, nke na-azọrọ na Ndịozi àmà Mary ahụ a na-gaa heaven, e nwere a omenala na ọ nwụrụ na January 18 (Tobi 21), ma na ya ili e chọpụtara ruo 206 ụbọchị gasịrị on August 15 (Mesore 16) (ịhụ Graef, Mary, vol. 1, p. 134, n. 1; na-ede akwụkwọ referenced Dom Capelle, Newspapers Theologicae Lovanienses 3, 1926, p. 38; M r. James, Apọkrịfa New Testament, 1924, p. 194-201).
  10. Mmemme nke Ọmụmụ Kraịst (i.e., Christmas) e guzobere ná mmalite narị afọ nke anọ, n'oge ọchịchị nke Constantine. The oriri nke Ascension e guzobere narị afọ nke ise, ebe mbụ e gụnyere mmemme nke Pentikọst.
  11. N'ụzọ nke a, Chọọchị yiri nne nke na-akpan ụmụ ya na-ekiri a akpan akpan TV show ruo mgbe ọ nwere ohere na-ekiri ndị show na-ekpe ikpe na ya onwe ya. The Church mgbe mehiere n'akụkụ nke ịkpachara anya na nghọta n'ihe banyere okwukwe na omume. Tụlee na, nso nso karịa, Saints Teresa nke Avila (d. 1582) na Jọn nke Cross (d. 1591), ugbu a na-asọpụrụ dị ka dọkịta nke Church, na ajụjụ ọnụ ndị Njụta Okwukwe na enyo nke heresy. N'otu aka ahụ, na-edetu nke Saint Faustina Kowalska (d. 1938), Divine Ebere na My Soul, e na otu oge jụrụ ka heterodox site Church ọkà mmụta okpukpe, ma ekemende nweela ukara ihu ọma n'okpuru Pope John Paul Ukwu. Faustina kpugheere ndị dị na-edetu, n'ezie, emewo ka alụmdi nke mmemme nke Divine Ebere, ugbu a ala-eme ememe na Church.