Bụ Pita mgbe ke Rome?

Painting of the Crucifixion of Saint Peter by CaravaggioỤfọdụ agọnahụ na Saint Peter bụ mgbe ke Rome n'ihi na Bible na-adịghị dee ọrụ ya e.

Ma Pita n'onwe ya na-egosi ọnụnọ ya dị Rome na Akwụkwọ Nsọ ahụ n'okwu mmechi nke ya Akpa Letter, si, "Ọ bụ onye na Babịlọn, onye na-dika họọrọ, nēkele gi; na otú nwa m Mark " (5:13).

"Babylon" na-emekarị na-eji ndị Kraịst nọ na narị afọ mbụ ka a koodu aha maka Rome–ịhụ, ọmụmaatụ, na Akwụkwọ Mkpughe, 14:8; 16:19.

The Odide Muratori (dị ka. 170) na-akọwa na Peter n'ihi okwukwe e omitted si Ọrụ nke Ndịozi n'ihi na Saint Luke họọrọ naanị ndekọ ihe nke o àmà onwe. Luk omission Pita ọrụ Rome, Ya mere, yiri pụtara nanị na ọ na Pita mere ka ọ ghara obodo n'otu oge.

Peter kwesiri wee Rome gburugburu afọ 42 A.D. wee nwụọ n'ebe banyere 67, ma nke a apụtaghị na ọ nọgidere n'ebe ahụ n'oge intervening 25 afọ.

Ọ bụ nnọọ ihe o yiri na, na ọ malitere ịchị Rome dị ka ebe obibi ya njem ozi ala ọzọ, o si na isi obodo pụtara ugboro ugboro–ọbụna ruo afọ ole na a oge.1

Mgbe Pita nọ na-adịghị kwuru na n'akwụkwọ ozi Pọl Roman mkpọrọ ma, e bụ izo aka ya na Pọl Degaara ndị Rom, esịnede a afọ ole na ole tupu mgbe. N'akwụkwọ ozi, Paul na-egosi na ọ nọwo na-ala azụ na-abịa Rome ikwusa "ebe Christ esesịn a aha ya bụ, ka m'we ghara iru na nwoke ọzọ na ntọala " (15:20).

The "nwoke ọzọ,"Onye na-ekwusa ozi Gospel na Rom tupu Paul, ga-Peter. Ebe ọ bụ na Jizọs nyere iwu ka ndịozi ahụ "na-eso ụzọ nke mba nile" (ịhụ Matiu 28:19). Ya mere, ọ bụ ihe ezi uche na-atụ anya na ọ dịkarịa ala otu n'ime mmadụ iri na abụọ gara Rome, ebe mba nile zutere, na ya yiri nnọọ ekwesị na mbụ Apostle na Rom bu Peter, na vicarious ọzụzụ atụrụ nke Christ ìgwè ewu na aturu (John 21:15-17).

Painting of Christ Appearing to Saint Peter on the Appian Way by Annibale Carracci

N'ezie, Peter ama ẹsuande mkpụrụ nke Roman Christianity n'oge ya Pentecost ozizi dị ka eluigwe na ala, ìgwè mmadụ ahụ ọ gwara na ụbọchị nwere ọbịa si Rome (Ọrụ nke Ndịozi, 2:10).

Ndị a mbụ atọghata ga-emecha-awa okooko n'ime Church of Rome, ezie na ha ga-achọ Apostle nduzi iji hiwere n'ime a n'otu obodo.2

The akụkọ ihe mere eme na-egosi maka Peter ọnụnọ Rome, ẹdude ke odide nke Early Church Fathers, bụ olu na-akarị.

Ede si Rome, nanị ole na ole ruo iri afọ mgbe nke bu eziokwu, Pope Saint Clement, ndi mara ma Pita ma Pọl, zoro aka na ha ndị dike martyrdoms (ịhụ Letter nke Clement ndị Kọrịnt 5:1-7). N'otu aka ahụ, Saint Ignatius nke Antiọk (c. 107 A.D.) we si ndi Roman kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi, "Ọ bụghị dị ka Pita na Pọl mere, ime m enye gị iwu. Ha Ndịozi, na m a mara ikpe " (si Letter nke Ignatius ndị Rom, 4:3).

Gburugburu afọ 130, Saint Papias kwupụtara na Saint Mark rụrụ ọrụ dị ka Pita nnyemaaka na Rome (-ahụ Pita Akpa Letter 5:13) na na Oziọma Mak mepụtara site na ya ndekọ nke Apostle ukwọrọikọ e (ịhụ Nkọwa nke Kwuru nke Jehova; Eusebius, History of the Church 3:39:15 na-ahụ nwekwara Irenaeus, heresies 3:1:1).3

Painting of Saint Peter Consecrates Saint Lawrence as Deacon by Fra AngelicoỌzọkwa, na banyere 170, Daịọnisiọs, Bishop Corinth, degaara Pope Saint Soter, "I nwere nwekwara, site gị item, ada ọnụ na akuku na e mere site Pita na Pọl na Rome na na Corinth; maka ha abụọ myiri kụrụ anyị Corinth na kụziiri anyị; na ma myiri, akụziri N'otu aka ahụ na Italy, tara ahụhụ n'ihi okwukwe n'otu oge " (Letter na Soter of Rome 2:25:8).

Saint Irenaeus nke Lyons (c. 185) kwuru na Pita ọrụ Rome nnọọ kpọmkwem, akpọ Church of Rome “na kasị ukwuu n'ime oge ochie Church niile mara na, tọrọ ntọala na haziri na Rome site abụọ kasị dị ebube Ndịozi, Pita na Pọl” (Against Heresies, 3:3:2).

Kwupụta na njedebe nke narị afọ nke abụọ, Saint Clement nke Alexandria gosikwara na Mark jere ozi dị ka Pita odeakwụkwọ na Rome (ịhụ Muratori; Eusebius, History 6:14:6).

Mgbe uzo nke narị afọ, Tertullian kwuru na Clement e chiri na Rome site Peter onwe ya (ịhụ The Demurrer Megide n'Ịbụ Ndị Jụrụ Okwukwe 32:2). A afọ ole na ole mgbe e mesịrị, o dere,, "Ka anyị hụ ihe ... dị nso Ndị Rom uda puta, onye ma Pita ma Pọl nyere ndị Gospel na ọbụna kaa ya akara na ha ọbara " (Against Marcion 4:5:1).

Gburugburu otu oge, a Roman presbyter aha ya bụ Caius kwupụtara na Peter ẹbụk na Vatican ugwu. "M nwere ike tụọ trophies nke onyenchịkwa,"Ka o kwuru. "N'ihi na ọ bụrụ na ị dị njikere gaa Vatican ma ọ bụ na Ostian Way [ebe Pita na Pọl na-eli karị], ị ga-achọta trophies nke ndị tọrọ ntọala a Church " (Disputation na Proclus; Eusebius, History 2:25:7). Saint Hippolytus nke Rome (d. 235) dere, "Peter ikwusa ozi oma Pọntọs, na Galatia, na Kapadoshia, na Betania, na Italy, na Asia, na e mesịa kpogidere site Nero na Rome na isi ya ala, dị ka o nwere onwe ya chọrọ na-ata ahụhụ nke a otú " (On ndịozi iri na abụọ 1).

The omenala n'ihi Peter akpogburu na olili (na ọnụnọ Rome) e enen ke 1968 mgbe na ọkpụkpụ ya na-chọtaghachi na a na narị afọ mbụ ili emi odude na n'okpuru isi ebe ịchụàjà nke Saint Peter nnukwu ụlọ ụka Senti na Rome. The Apostle ọkpukpu ahuru ama emebibeghị ma e wezụga na ụkwụ na-efu efu, aro ndị agha nwere ike wepụrụ ozu si cross site igbupụ ụkwụ, corroborating ndị ochie na Pita nọ na kpogidere isi n'ala.4

  1. CF. Warren H. Carroll, A History of Christendom, vol. 1 (Front Royal, Virginia: Christendom Press), p. 420.
  2. na The Ọdachi nke Calvary, Henry bụ, e zoro aka na The Official Legion of Mary Handbook, na-aga a nzọụkwụ ọzọ, edebe, "The Church of n'ọdịnihu, nke a ga-akpọ Roman Church, malitere na a omimi n'ụzọ gburugburu Calvary ọrụ nke o a kara aka na-emezu n'ụwa. Ndị Rom na ọ bụ onye chụrụ aja na elu ya n'anya ìgwè. Ndị a ga-eme n'ọdịnihu ẹkekpemede nke ịdị n'otu nke Church ga-ajụ-adọwakwa uwe nke Jesus. Ndị a depositories nke okwukwe ga-akpa na-ede na-akwalite isi malitere izi ozizi nke ọhụrụ okwukwe-eze nke Nazarene. Ha ga-egbu ha obi n'oge mgbe àjà ga-consummated si: 'N'ezie, nke a bụ Ọkpara Chineke.' Egbu, na otu ube nke ga-emeghe na Gospel niile okporo ụzọ awara awara nke eluigwe na ala, ha ga-emeghe Sacred Heart nke nna ukwu, òle ebe eruba iyi nke benediction na nke karịrị ike mmadụ ndụ. Ebe ọ bụ na mmadụ niile bụ ikpe mara nke nke Mgbapụta, ebe niile mikpuru ha aka na ya , na ebe ọ bụ ya mere n'ọdịnihu Church-apụghị na-anọchi anya ma site culprits, ka ọ na-eyighị ka ọ bụ ezie na Ndị Rom, dị ka n'oge dị ka oge Calvary, bu, ezie na amaghị ama, eguzobe, substantiating, ha adịghị anwụ anwụ aka? The cross e ofu na ndị dị otú ahụ a na ọnọdụ na na azụ nke Jizọs wee tụgharịa buso Jerusalem, mgbe ihu ya n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ, kwupụta Ebighị Ebi City " (Dublin: Council Legion nke Mary, 1993, p. 339-340).
  3. Tertullian, a na narị afọ mgbe e mesịrị, ga-aga dị ka na-ekwu, "(The Gospel) nyere site Mark nwere ike Abasi ọdọhọ anya Pita dị ka, onye ntụgharị okwu Mark bụ " (Against Marcion 4:5:3).
  4. Carroll, vol. 1, p. 445, n. 143; na-ede akwụkwọ referenced John E. Walsh, The Ọkpụkpụ nke St. Peter (Garden City, New York, 1982), p. 164-165.