聖体

Why Do Catholics believe the Eucharist is the Body and Blood of Jesus?

Image of The Last Supper by Albrecht BoutsThe short answer is that Catholics believe the Eucharist is the Body and Blood of Jesus because it was taught by Jesus, ご自身, and recorded in the Bible.

On the night He was betrayed, He gathered with His Apostles to celebrate Passover, the ritualistic meal eaten by the Israelites (on the eve of their liberation from bondage in Egypt).

The Passover meal included the flesh of the sacrificial lamb (see Exodus, 12:8). The Last Supper, which took place on the eve of man’s liberation from sin, is the fulfillment of the Passover meal.

On that night, now known as Holy Thursday, イエス, the Lamb of God, gave His own Flesh and Blood to be eaten by the faithful–sacramentally, in the form of Bread and Wine.1

Jehovah’s Witnesses and other groups commonly object to Catholic teaching on the Eucharist on the grounds it violates the Old Testament prohibition against the eating of blood. In Mark’s Gospel 7:18-19, しかしながら, Jesus removed the burden of the Mosaic dietary restrictions—including the eating of blood—from His followers. At the Council of Jerusalem the Apostles did forbid the eating of blood, though only in particular situations to avoid unnecessarily offending the Jews (使徒の行為を参照してください。 15:29 と 21:25).

パンを取ります, それを祝福, それを破ります, そして、使徒の中でそれを配布, jesus said, 「テイク, 食べます; これは私の体 "であります (マシュー 26:26). その後、彼はカップを取りました, これはまた、彼は祝福します, 彼らに与えました, 格言, それの「ドリンク, あなた方全員; このために契約の私の血であります, 「罪の許しのため、多くのために注がれています (マシュー 26:27-28). イエスはしばしば彼の大臣の間に例えて話したが、, この決定的な瞬間に彼ははっきりと話しました. 「これは私の体であります,"彼は言いました, without explanation. 「これは私の血である。 "これは主がより直接的にされている可能性がどのように想像するのは難しいです.

Image of Communion of the Apostles by Justus Ghent最後の晩餐での聖体のイエスの機関は彼の有名なパン生命の説教を満たし, which is recorded in the sixth chapter of the Gospel of John. この説教は、パンと魚の乗算によって前置きされます, by which thousands are miraculously fed from a tiny amount of food (ジョンを参照してください 6:4 although that miracle appears in all four Gospels). This event is a Eucharistic metaphor, occurring as it does during Passover and having been effected by the same formula Jesus would later use at the Last Supper—taking the loaves, 感謝を与えます, それらを配布 (ジョン 6:11). 人々は彼からのサインを要求するには、次の日に戻ると, 彼らの先祖は荒野でマナを与えられていたか思い出し (as in Exodus 16:14), Jesus replies, 「本当に, 本当に, 私はあなたに言います, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven; my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven, and gives life to the world” (ジョン 6:32-33).

「主, give us this bread always,” they cry (ジョン 6:34).

「私は命のパンです,” He responds; “he who comes to me shall not hunger, そしてわたしを信じる彼は「渇き決してなりません (6:35). 彼の言葉は、ユダヤ人が不安にするけど, イエスは衰えることなく継続し, 彼の演説よりグラフィック着実に成長:

47 「本当に, 本当に, 私はあなたに言います, he who believes has eternal life.

48 私は命のパンです.

49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, 彼らは死にました.

50 This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that a man may eat of it and not die.

51 I am the living bread which came down from heaven; いずれも、このパンを食べるならば, 彼は永遠に生きます; と the bread which I shall give for the life of the world is my flesh” (6:47-51; 強調を追加).

詩 51 contains indisputable proof that Jesus is not speaking figuratively, for He identifies the Bread which must be eaten as the same Flesh that would suffer and die on the Cross. To assert that in referring to His Flesh in this passage He is speaking symbolically is to say the Flesh that suffered and died on the Cross was merely a symbol, for they are one and the same!2

"どのようにこの男は食べるように私たちに彼の肉を与えることができます?” the people ask (6:52).

その驚愕のにもかかわらず, Jesus proceeds all the more emphatically:

「本当に, 本当に, 私はあなたに言います, あなたは人の子の肉を食べ、その血を飲まない限り、, あなたはあなたの中に命はありません; わたしの肉を食べ、わたしの血は永遠の命を持って飲む彼, 私は最後の日に彼を発生させます. 私の肉のために食べ物は確かにありま​​す, そして私の血は確かに飲み物です. 彼は私の肉を食べ、わたしの血が私に遵守飲む人, 彼のI、. 住んでいる父がわたしを遣わされたよう, 私は父のために生きます, そう私を食べる彼が私のために生きます. これは天から下ってきたパンであります, 父親が食べて死んだようなありません; このパンは「永遠に生きます食べる彼 (6:53-58; 強調を追加).

聖体のお祝いは、初期のキリスト教徒の生活の中で中心的でした, 誰が「使徒たちの教えと交わりに自分自身を捧げ, 「パンの破壊と祈りへ (使徒の行為を参照してください。 2:42). Note that “The breaking of bread and the prayers” refers to the Liturgy.

Only a few years after the death of the last Apostle, アンティオキアの聖イグナチオ (D. CA. 107) described the Liturgy the same way, denouncing heretics for abstaining “from the Eucharist and from prayer” (Smyrnaeansへの手紙 6:2). That the early Church, さらに, took Sunday, the day of the Resurrection, as her Sabbath is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles 20:7, これは言います, “On the first day of the week, … we were gathered together to break bread …” (CF. ディダケー 14; Justin the Martyr, まずお詫び 67).

Saint Paul identifies both the manna and the rock that spew forth water for the Israelites as Eucharistic metaphors. 「すべてが同じ超自然食品を食べて、すべて同じ超自然ドリンクを飲みました,「彼は書いています. 「彼らはそれらに続いた超自然岩から飲んだために, そしてロックは「キリストでした (See his First Letter to the Corinthians10:3-4 as well as the Book of Revelations 2:17). He goes on to admonish the Corinthians for their lack of reverence in receiving the Eucharist, 書き込み:

11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread

24 そして、彼は感謝を与えていたとき、, 彼はそれを破りました, そして、言いました, This is my body which is for you. 私の記念としてこれを行います.

25 In the same way also the cup, after supper, 格言, This cup is the new covenant in my blood. これを行う, できるだけ頻繁にあなたがそれを飲むよう, in remembrance of me.

26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

27 誰でも, 故に, 値しないようにしてパンやドリンク主のカップは主の体と血を冒涜の有罪になります食べます.

28 男は自分自身を調べてみましょう, そのため、カップのパンと飲み物を食べ.

29 自らの際にボディ食べるとドリンク判断を見分けることなく食べ、ドリンクいずれかの場合.

30 あなたの多くは弱く、病気の理由です, and some have died (マタイを参照してください 5:23-24, あまりに).

Per verse 27, to receive the Eucharist unworthily is to sin against the Body and Blood of the Lord. だから、, それは尋ねる価値があります: how could the unworthy reception of ordinary bread and wine amount to a sin against the Body and Blood of Jesus? Paul says even that the impious reception of the Eucharist is the reason “why many of you are weak and ill, 一部は「死亡しています (v. 30).

It is only fitting that the most famous early Patristic (Church Father) statements on the Real Presence come from Saint Ignatius of Antioch, who learned the Faith seated at the feet of the Evangelist John. In about the year A.D. 107, using the Church’s Eucharistic teaching to defend the Incarnation against the Docetists, who denied Jesus had truly come in the flesh, Ignatius wrote:

Take note of those who hold heterodox opinions on the grace of Jesus Christ which has come to us, そして、彼らの意見が神の心にどのように逆参照. ...彼らは聖体からと祈りを控えます, 彼らは聖体が私たちの救い主イエス・キリストの肉であることを告白していないため, 私たちの罪のために苦しみ、父肉, 彼の良さで, 再びよみがえら (Smyrnaeansへの手紙 6:2; 7:1).

苦しみ、私たちの罪のために十字架上で死に、死んでから戻って同じボディ, イグナチオは説明したように, 聖体で私たちに存在します (ジョンを参照してください 6:51).

聖ジャスティン殉教者, writing around 150, 聖体パンとワイン "ではないなどの一般的なパンも共通のドリンクを受けていると述べました,「その転生イエスの肉と血 "彼らはされているため" (まずお詫び 66).

程度で 185, ライオンズの聖エイレナイオス, その先生スマーナの聖ポリュカルポス (D. CA. 156) また、ジョンを知っていました, グノーシス主義に対する身体の復活を守るに聖体のスポーク. 「体が保存されていないことが場合,「聖を主張, 「その後、, 実際には, どちらも主は彼の御血で私たちを償還んでした; どちらも聖体のカップは、彼の御血の参加者をであることも、私たちは彼の体の参加者をを破るパンです (1 色彩. 10:16)" (異端に対して 5:2:2).

Origen remarked of the Eucharist around the middle of the third century, “Formerly, in an obscure way, there was manna for food; now, しかしながら, in full view, there is the True Food, the Flesh of the Word of God, as he himself says: ‘My Flesh is true food, and my Blood is true drink’ (ジョン 6:56)" (Homilies on Numbers 7:2).

同様に, カルタゴのサンシプリアン (D. 258) 書きました:

We ask that this bread be given us daily (CF. マット. 6:11), so that we who are in Christ and daily receive the Eucharist as the food of salvation, may not, by falling into some more grievous sin and then abstaining from communicating, be withheld from the heavenly Bread, and be separated from Christ’s Body. … He Himself warns us, 格言, “Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you shall not have life in you” (ジョン 6:54) (The Lord’s Prayer 18).

  1. The blood of the Passover lamb was not consumed. 実際には, it was forbidden for Israel to consume the blood of any animal, as blood represented the life force of the animal, which belonged to God alone (ジェネシスを参照してください, 9:4, そして、レビ記, 7:26). 逆に, in the Eucharist, God wishes to share His Blood, His very Life, with us to nourish us sacramentally. In this ineffable Gift we become one flesh and blood, one spirit, with God (ヨハネの福音書を参照してください 6:56-57 and the Book of Revelations, 3:20).
  2. Jesus does use symbolic language in reference to Himself elsewhere in John’s ゴスペル, calling Himself “the door” and “the vine,” for example (10:7 と 15:5, それぞれ). In these other instances, しかしながら, He does not apply nearly the same emphasis to His words that He does in ジョン 6, in which He repeats Himself again and again with increasing clarity. Nor do these other sayings engender controversy among the listeners the way His words in ジョン 6 do. また、, the Evangelist John actually informs us Jesus is speaking figuratively in ジョン 10:6, something he does not do in the sixth chapter.