154 – Saint Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna and disciple of the Apostle John, meets with Pope Saint Anicetus I in Rome
They discuss the controversy over observance of the feast of Pascha (បុណ្យ Easter). The Eastern Church follows John’s custom of celebrating the feast on the 14th day of the Jewish month of Nisan, regardless of the particular day of the week. The Western Church follows Peter’s custom of celebrating the feast always on a Sunday. Anicetus and Polycarp concelebrate Mass (CF. Irenaeus, គ. 190 A.D., Letter to Victor of Rome; Eusebius, History 5:24:16-17).
156 – Martyrdom of Saint Polycarp
Revealing the early Church’s veneration of relics, the Christians in Smyrna, witnessing their Bishop’s martyrdom, សរសេរ, “And so later on we took up his bones, which are more valuable than precious stones and finer than refined gold, and deposited them in a suitable place. There gathering together, as we are able, ដោយសេចក្ដីអំណរនិងការសប្បាយរីករាយ, the Lord will permit us to celebrate the birthday of his martyrdom in commemoration of those who have already fought in the contest, and for the training and preparation of those who will do so in the future” (បាបរបស់លោក Saint Polycarp នេះ, គ. 156 A.D., 18:2-3).
170 – Muratorian Fragment, written in Rome, gives information on the New Testament and other early Christian writings
177 – Martyrdom of Saint Blandina and her companions in Lyons
181 – First Recorded Use of the Term “Trinity”: លោក Saint Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch
He also speaks of baptismal rebirth and Confirmation (ដើម្បី Autolycus).
185 – Saint Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons and disciple of Polycarp, composes Against Heresies
He writes of the Holy Trinity, Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, នាងម៉ារីជាអេវ៉ាថ្មី, and authority of the Church of Rome—listing the Popes from Peter down to his day:
3:3:2 (Authority of the Church of Rome) “Since it would be too long to enumerate in such a volume as this the successions of all the Churches, យើងនឹងបំផ្លាញអស់អ្នកដែល, នៅក្នុងលក្ខណៈអ្វី, … assemble other than where it is proper, ដោយចង្អុលបង្ហាញនៅទីនេះទទួលបានជោគជ័យរបស់ប៊ីស្សពនៃសាសនាចក្រធំបំផុតនិងបុរាណច្រើនបំផុតដែលបានស្គាល់ទៅទាំងអស់, បង្កើតឡើងនិងបានរៀបចំនៅទីក្រុងរ៉ូមដោយពួកសាវករុងរឿងបំផុតពីរ, លោកពេត្រុសនិងលោកប៉ូល, សាសនាចក្រដែលមានប្រពៃណីនិងជំនឿដែលចុះដល់ពួកយើងបន្ទាប់ពីត្រូវបានប្រកាសដល់បុរសដែលបានដោយពួកសាវក. ដ្បិតសាសនាចក្រនេះ, ដោយសារតែប្រភពដើមខ្ពស់របស់, វិហារទាំងអស់ត្រូវតែយល់ព្រម, នោះគឺជាការ, ទាំងអស់ដែលស្មោះត្រង់នៅក្នុងពិភពលោកទាំងមូល; ហើយវាគឺនៅក្នុងរបស់នាងដែលស្មោះត្រង់នៅគ្រប់ទីកន្លែងបានរក្សាប្រពៃណីភូមិភាគ. …
3:3:3 “The blessed Apostles [លោកពេត្រុសនិងលោកប៉ូល], ដោយបានបង្កើតឡើងនិងបានកសាងឡើងសាសនាចក្រ [of Rome], ពួកគេបានប្រគល់ការិយាល័យនៃគ្រឹស្តសាសនាដើម្បី Linus. Paul makes mention of this Linus in the [ជាលើកទីពីរ] Epistle to Timothy (4:21). ដើម្បីទទួលបានជោគជ័យ Anacletus គាត់; ហើយបន្ទាប់ពីគាត់, នៅក្នុងកន្លែងទីបីរបស់ពួកសាវក, Clement បានសម្រាប់គ្រឹស្តសាសនាត្រូវបានជ្រើសរើសនេះ. លោកបានឃើញសាវកនិងត្រូវបានពរជាមួយពួកគេស្គាល់. វាអាចត្រូវបានបាននិយាយថាលោកនៅតែឮពីអ្វីដែលការផ្សព្វផ្សាយរបស់ពួកសាវ័កនោះ, និងមានប្រពៃណីទំនៀមទំលាប់របស់ពួកគេមុនពេលដែលភ្នែករបស់គាត់. មិនតែប៉ុណ្ណោះលោកនិង, សម្រាប់មនុស្សជាច្រើននៅតែមាននៅសល់ដែលត្រូវបានណែនាំដោយក្រុមសាវ័ក.
“In the time of Clement, ប្រកែកជំទាស់បានកើតឡើងក្នុងចំណោមពួកបងប្អូននៅក្រុងកូរិនថូស, សាសនាចក្រនៅក្នុងទីក្រុងរ៉ូមបានផ្ញើលិខិតមួយទៅខ្លាំងណាស់កូរិនថូស, លើកទឹកចិត្ដពួកគេឱ្យមានសន្តិភាពនិងបន្តជំនឿរបស់ពួកគេ. ... ដើម្បី Clement បាននេះ, Evaristus ទទួលបានជោគជ័យ; និង Alexander បានជោគជ័យ Evaristus. បន្ទាប់មក, ទីប្រាំបន្ទាប់ពីពួកសាវកបាន, Sixtus ត្រូវបានតែងតាំង; បន្ទាប់ពីគាត់, Telesphorus, ដែលត្រូវបានគេសម្លាប់ដោយសិរីរុងរឿង. បន្ទាប់មក Hyginus; បន្ទាប់ពីគាត់, Pius; ហើយបន្ទាប់ពីគាត់, Anicetus. Soter ទទួលបានជោគជ័យ Anicetus, ហើយឥឡូវនេះ, នៅក្នុងកន្លែងទីដប់ពីរបន្ទាប់ពីពួកសាវ័ក, ច្រើនគ្រឹស្តសាសនានេះបានធ្លាក់ចុះដល់ Eleutherus. នៅក្នុងលំដាប់នេះ, និងដោយការបង្រៀនរបស់ពួកសាវ័កបានសម្រេចនៅក្នុងសាសនាចក្រ, ការផ្សព្វផ្សាយពីសេចក្តីពិតនោះបានចុះមកដល់ពួកយើង. ...
3:22:4 (នាងម៉ារីជាអេវ៉ាថ្មី) “Consequently, បន្ទាប់មក, Mary the Virgin is found to be obedient, និយាយថា:: «មើល!, ឱព្រះអម្ចាស់អើយ!, your handmaid; be it done to me according to your word” (Lk. 1:38). Eve, ទោះជាយ៉ាងណា, was disobedient; and when yet a virgin, she did not obey. Just as she, who was then still a virgin although she had Adam for a husband,—for in Paradise they were both naked but were not ashamed (លោកឧត្តមសេនីយ៍. 2:25); សម្រាប់, having been created only a short time, they had no understanding of the procreation of children and it was necessary that they first come to maturity before beginning to multiply,—having become disobedient, was made the cause of death for herself and for the whole human race; so also Mary, គូដណ្ដឹងរបស់បុរសម្នាក់ប៉ុន្តែយ៉ាងណានៅតែមានស្ត្រីក្រមុំម្នាក់, ស្ដាប់បង្គាប់, ត្រូវបានធ្វើឡើងពីមូលហេតុនៃសេចក្ដីសង្គ្រោះសម្រាប់ខ្លួននាងផ្ទាល់និងសម្រាប់មនុស្សទាំងមូល. ... ដូច្នេះ, the knot of Eve’s disobedience was loosed by the obedience of Mary. What the virgin Eve had bound in unbelief, the Virgin Mary loosed through faith. …
4:17:5 (Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist) “He took from among creation that which is bread, and gave thanks, និយាយថា:, ‘This is My Body’ (លោក Matt. 26:26). The cup likewise, which is from among the creation to which we belong, He confessed to be His Blood. …
4:20:1 (Holy Trinity) “It was not angels, ហេតុនេះហើយបានជា, who made us nor who formed us, neither did angels have the power to make an image of God. It was not some power existing far from the Father of the universe, nor was it anyone else, other than the Word of the Lord. God had no need of others to make what He had already determined of Himself to make, as if He had not His own hands. For with Him always are the Word and the Wisdom, the Son and the Spirit, through whom and in whom He made all things freely and spontaneously; and to whom He spoke, និយាយថា:: ‘Let us make man in our image and likeness’ (លោកឧត្តមសេនីយ៍. 1:26)."
190 – The Quartodeciman Dispute
Pope Saint Victor I declares the universal observance of the feast of Pascha (បុណ្យ Easter) on Sunday. The Bishops of Asia Minor (the Quartodecimans) oppose the ruling and Victor threatens them with excommunication. Irenaeus and others petition the Pope to reconsider, preventing the censure.
200 – Fresco in Catacomb of Saint Callistus in Rome depicts Christ the Good Shepherd
200 – Inscription at site of the Annunciation in Nazareth reads “Hail, Mary”
203 – Martyrdom of Saints Perpetua, Felicitas, and companions
Perpetua, the earliest known female Christian author, records vision of purgatory:
“After a few days, while we were all praying, suddenly in the middle of the prayer I spoke, and uttered the name of Dinocrates; and I was astonished that he had never come into mind till then; and I grieved, thinking of what had befallen him. And I saw at once that I was entitled, and ought, to make request for him. And I began to pray much for him, and make lamentation to the Lord. At once on this very night this was shown to me. I saw Dinocrates coming forth from a dark place, where there were many other dark places, very hot and thirsty, his countenance pale and squalid; and the wound which he had when he died was in his face still. This Dinocrates had been my brother according to the flesh, seven years old, who had died miserably of a gangrene in the face, so that his death moved all to loathing. For him then I had prayed; and there was a great gulf between me and him, so that neither of us could approach the other. There was besides in the very place where Dinocrates was a font full of water, the rim of which was above the head of the child; and Dinocrates stood on tiptoe to drink. I grieved that the font should have water in it and that nevertheless he could not drink because of the height of the rim. And I woke and recognized that my brother was in trouble. But I trusted that I could relieve his trouble, and I prayed for him every day until we were transferred to the garrison prison, for we were to fight with the beasts at the garrison games on the Cæsar Geta’s birthday. And I prayed for him day and night with lamentations and tears that he might be given me.
“During the daytime, while we stayed in the stocks, this was shown to me. I saw that same place which I had seen before, and Dinocrates clean in body, well clothed and refreshed; and where there had been a wound, I saw a scar; and the font which I had seen before had its rim lowered to the child’s waist; and there poured water from it unceasingly; and on the rim a golden bowl full of water. And Dinocrates came forward and began to drink from it, and the bowl failed not. And when he had drunk enough of the water, he came forward, being glad to play as children will. And I awoke. Then I knew that he had been released from punishment” (Martyrdom of Saints Perpetua and Felicitas 2:3-4).
211 – Tertullian becomes a heretic
215 – Saint Hippolytus of Rome describes priestly ordination and Infant Baptism (Apostolic Tradition); calls Mary “spotless God-bearer” (សុន្ទរកថាស្តីពីការបញ្ចប់នៃពិភពលោក)
“Baptize first the children; ហើយប្រសិនបើពួកគេអាចនិយាយសម្រាប់ខ្លួន, អនុញ្ញាតឱ្យពួកគេធ្វើដូច្នេះ. បើមិនដូច្នោះទេ, let their parents or other relatives speak for them” (Apostolic Tradition 21).
243 – Mary appears to Saint Gregory Thaumaturgos
250 – First Recorded Prayer to Mary: នៅក្រោមធី
254 – Origen dies
258 – Martyrdom of Pope Saint Sixtus II and companions during Mass in the Catacomb of Saint Callistus in Rome
258 – Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence, deacon of Pope Sixtus and treasure of the Church of Rome
258 – Martyrdom of Saint Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage