Holy Orders is a sacrament in which men are approved or “ordained” by the Church to perform the other six ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಕ್ರಿಯೆಗಳು. The men may be deacons, priests or bishops.
ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ, the sacrament of Holy Orders is performed only by bishops, and that follows directly from the Bible.
There is an established way in Scripture in which God’s call to the ministry is given and received. It flows from God to Jesus, from Jesus to the Apostles, and from the Apostles to their successors (ನೋಡಿ ಲ್ಯುಕ್ 10:16 ಮತ್ತು ಜಾನ್ ಸುವಾರ್ತೆಯಲ್ಲಿ 13:20; 20:21). ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, the sacrament of Holy Orders can be performed only by an Apostle or only by one on whom apostolic authority has been conferred. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, Paul writes in his ತಿಮೋತಿ ಮೊದಲ ಪತ್ರ (4:14), “Do not neglect the gift you have, which was given you by prophetic utterance when the council of elders laid their hands upon you” (ನೋಡಿ 5:22, ಅವನ ತಿಮೋತಿ ಎರಡನೇ ಪತ್ರ, 1:6, ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಟೈಟಸ್ ಪತ್ರ 1:5). ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, the sacrament follows an unbroken chain from Jesus to today’s newest Catholic priest. (More on this below.)
In the early Church, a hierarchy developed that consisted of bishops, presbyters (or elders), and deacons, which corresponded to Israel’s three-tiered structure of high priest, ಪುರೋಹಿತರು, and Levites (ಪಾಲ್ಸ್ ನೋಡಿ Phillipians ಪತ್ರ, 1:1; Saint James’ ಓಲೆ, 5:14; ಬುಕ್ ಆಫ್ ನಂಬರ್ಸ್, 32; The Second Book of Chronicles 31:9-10).1 In Israel, the priest was seen as God’s unique emissary (ನೋಡಿ ಮಲಾಚಿ 2:7), being set apart from the assembly by an anointing and the imposition of hands (ನೋಡಿ ವಿಮೋಚನಕಾಂಡ 30:30 ಅಥವಾ ಧರ್ಮೋಪದೇಶಕಾಂಡ 34:9).
Given that the Apostles were Jews, the Church adopted these Jewish customs for her rite of ordination.
Aren’t We all Priests?
ಯಾವುದೇ, but sometimes people are confused by the Bible’s message that all believers are called to share in Christ’s priesthood. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, Saint Peter’s ಮೊದಲ ಪತ್ರ (2:9) ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳ, “You are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s own people.” These words are a reference back to ವಿಮೋಚನಕಾಂಡ 19:6, “You shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”
Reserving the authority to perform sacraments to a special group of individuals (ಪುರೋಹಿತರು) is known as sacerdotalism.
In the Old Covenant, a smaller, sacerdotal priesthood existed within the larger priestly nation of Israel. ನಾವು ವಿವರಿಸಲು ಮಾಹಿತಿ, it is the same in the New Covenant.
The Bible reveals the sacerdotal priesthood to be a kind of spiritual fatherhood, which is why the Catholic Church teaches that priestly ordination is reserved for men alone. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, in the Old Testament, ದಿ Book of Judges (18:19) ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳ: “ನಮ್ಮ ಜೊತೆ ಬಾ, and be to us a father and a priest.”
ಅಂತೆಯೇ, ಹೊಸ ಒಡಂಬಡಿಕೆಯಲ್ಲಿ, Paul writes in his ಕೊರಿಂಥದವರಿಗೆ ಬರೆದ ಮೊದಲ ಪತ್ರ (4:15) ಎಂದು “For though you have countless guides in Christ, you do not have many fathers. For I became your father in Christ Jesus through the Gospel.” Paul elaborates more on this spiritual fatherhood or sacerdotal priesthood at the start of that same chapter, when he says, “This is how one should regard us, as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God” (4:1).2
At the start of His ministry, Jesus remarked that the crowds resembled “sheep without a shepherd,” ಹೇಳುವ, “The harvest is plentiful, ಆದರೆ ಕಾರ್ಮಿಕರು ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ; pray therefore the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into his harvest” (ನೋಡಿ ಮ್ಯಾಥ್ಯೂ 9:36, 37-38). These remarks preface His selection of the Twelve Apostles, whom He empowered and sent out as His vicarious shepherds over the faithful (ನೋಡಿ ಜಾನ್ ಸುವಾರ್ತೆಯಲ್ಲಿ 21:15-17; ದಿ ಏಸುದೂತರ ಕೃತ್ಯಗಳು 20:28; ಪೀಟರ್ ತಂದೆಯ ಮೊದಲ ಪತ್ರ 5:2). “You did not choose me,” He later reminded them, “but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit” (ಜಾನ್ 15:16). “How can men preach unless they are sent?” writes Paul in his ರೋಮನ್ನರು ಪತ್ರ, 10:15.
Nowhere in Scripture does a man assume the ministry for himself. “One does not take the honor upon himself, but is called by God, ಆರನ್ ಕೇವಲ ಮಾಹಿತಿ,” write Paul in his ಇಬ್ರಿಯರಿಗೆ ಪತ್ರ 5:4 (see his ಕೊಲೊಸ್ಸೆಯವರಿಗೆ ಪತ್ರ 1:25, ಸಹ). When certain Jewish exorcists attempt to rebuke evil spirits “by the Jesus whom Paul preaches,” the spirits reply, “Jesus I know, ಮತ್ತು ಪಾಲ್ ನನಗೆ ತಿಳಿದಿದೆ; but who are you?” (ಏಸುದೂತರ ಕೃತ್ಯಗಳು, 19:13, 15).
ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, a valid call to the ministry ordinarily involves the confirmation of the apostolic hierarchy. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, in the Act of the Apostles (1:15), Matthias does not stand up and take his ministerial office by his own volition. He is elected according to the authority of Peter and the Apostles, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Neither does Paul, in spite of his dramatic conversion, set off on his own to preach the Gospel, claiming God’s anointing for himself. As mentioned in his Letter to the Galatians (1:18), he goes first to Jerusalem to receive the approval of the Apostles, and later he returns to verify the gospel he is preaching is correct (2:2).
While all Christians are called to evangelize, the Apostles and their successors have the unique call of safeguarding the Deposit of Faith and teaching the faithful. ರಲ್ಲಿ ಮ್ಯಾಥಿವ್ ಸುವಾರ್ತೆಯಲ್ಲಿ (28:19-20) Jesus says to the Apostles, “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, ತಂದೆಯ ಹೆಸರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಸುತ ಮತ್ತು ಪವಿತ್ರ ಆತ್ಮದ ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು ಬ್ಯಾಪ್ಟೈಜ್, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.”
ಅಂತೆಯೇ, in his ತಿಮೋತಿ ಎರಡನೇ ಪತ್ರ, Paul instructs: “Guard the truth that has been entrusted to you by the Holy Spirit who dwells within us,… What you have heard from me before many witnesses entrust to faithful men who will be able to teach others also.” (ಪದ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ನೋಡಿ 1:14; 2:2; 1:13; ಮತ್ತು ಏಸುದೂತರ ಕೃತ್ಯಗಳು 2:42).
ವಾಸ್ತವವಾಗಿ, when His ministers teach it is Christ Himself who teaches through them as He said: “He who hears you hears me, and he who rejects you, rejects me, and he who rejects me rejects him who sent me” (ಲ್ಯೂಕ್ 10:16). Elsewhere He declares, “ನಿಜವಾಗಿಯೂ, ನಿಜವಾಗಿ, ನಾನು ನಿಮಗೆ ಹೇಳುತ್ತೇನೆ, he who receives any one whom I send ನನ್ನನ್ನು ಅಂಗೀಕರಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ; and he who receives me receives him who sent me” (ಜಾನ್ 13:20; ಸ್ವರಭಾರ ಸೇರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ).
The Apostles are given the authority of presiding over the Eucharistic celebration. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, while instituting the Eucharist at the Last Supper, He bids them, “Do this in remembrance of me” (ಲ್ಯೂಕ್ 22:19 and Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians, 11:23-24). The Apostles receive a unique share in His priesthood and with it the chief duty of offering the Eucharistic Sacrifice on behalf of the faithful (CF. ಹ್ಯಾವ್. 5:1).3
The Apostles also receive from Jesus the power to forgive sins through the gift of the keys given to Peter and the authority to” bind and loose” conferred on them as a group (CF. ಮ್ಯಾಟ್. 16:19; 18:18). “ತಂದೆಯು ನನ್ನನ್ನು ಕಳುಹಿಸಿ ಹೊಂದಿದಂತೆ,” the Savior tells them, “ಇಷ್ಟಾದರೂ I send you. … Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained” (ಜಾನ್ 20:21-23; ಸ್ವರಭಾರ ಸೇರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ).
- Though the fullness of the apostolic office with all its prerogatives was not passed down, the bishops, as direct successors to the Apostles, remained at the head of the hierarchy. ↩
- The word “mystery,” ಗ್ರೀಕ್, mysterion, is translated in Latin as sacramentum ಅಥವಾ “sacrament.” The Greek Orthodox continue to this day to refer to the Sacraments as the sacred “Mysteries.” ↩
- The Biblical view of the Eucharist as a Sacrifice (CF. Mal. 1:11; 1 ಕಾರ್ಗೆ. 10:1-5, 15-22; 11:23-30; ಹ್ಯಾವ್. 10:25-26), ವಾಸ್ತವವಾಗಿ, further points to the existence of a sacerdotal priesthood–for the presence of a sacrifice necessitates a priesthood to offer it. ಪೋಪ್ ಸೇಂಟ್ ಕ್ಲೆಮೆಂಟ್, writing from Rome in about the year 96, clearly distinguished between the Eucharistic Sacrifice offered by the ministerial priesthood and the spiritual sacrifices offered by the priesthood of the laity (CF. Clement’s Letter to the Corinthians 40-41). Misunderstanding the Eucharistic Sacrifice, non-Catholics sometimes accuse Catholics of “re-sacrificing” Jesus at Mass. The Eucharistic Sacrifice is not a re-sacrificing, ಆದರೆ, but a re-presentation of the one Sacrifice of Calvary. Christ does not die again; His saving Flesh and Blood are made present on the altar under the appearances of Bread and Wine so that the faithful may “proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes” as Paul wrote in his ಕೊರಿಂಥದವರಿಗೆ ಬರೆದ ಮೊದಲ ಪತ್ರ (11:26). ↩