Holy Orders is a sacrament in which men are approved or “ordained” by the Church to perform the other six 성례전. The men may be deacons, priests or bishops.
그러나, the sacrament of Holy Orders is performed only by bishops, and that follows directly from the Bible.
There is an established way in Scripture in which God’s call to the ministry is given and received. It flows from God to Jesus, from Jesus to the Apostles, and from the Apostles to their successors (참조 누가 복음 10:16 그리고 요한 복음 13:20; 20:21). 그래서, the sacrament of Holy Orders can be performed only by an Apostle or only by one on whom apostolic authority has been conferred. 예를 들면, Paul writes in his 디모데 첫째 편지 (4:14), “Do not neglect the gift you have, which was given you by prophetic utterance when the council of elders laid their hands upon you” (참조 5:22, 그의 디모데에게 두 번째 편지, 1:6, 자신을 디도에게 보내는 편지 1:5). 그래서, the sacrament follows an unbroken chain from Jesus to today’s newest Catholic priest. (More on this below.)
In the early Church, a hierarchy developed that consisted of bishops, 장로 (or elders), and deacons, which corresponded to Israel’s three-tiered structure of high priest, 사제, and Levites (바울의 참조 Phillipians에게 보내는 편지, 1:1; Saint James’ Epistle, 5:14; The Book of Numbers, 32; The Second Book of Chronicles 31:9-10).1 In Israel, the priest was seen as God’s unique emissary (참조 말라기 2:7), being set apart from the assembly by an anointing and the imposition of hands (참조 출애굽기 30:30 또는 신명기 34:9).
Given that the Apostles were Jews, the Church adopted these Jewish customs for her rite of ordination.
Aren’t We all Priests?
아니, but sometimes people are confused by the Bible’s message that all believers are called to share in Christ’s priesthood. 예를 들면, Saint Peter’s 첫 번째 편지 (2:9) 상태, “You are a chosen race, 왕 같은 제사장, 거룩한 나라, God’s own people.” These words are a reference back to 출애굽기 19:6, “You shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”
Reserving the authority to perform sacraments to a special group of individuals (사제) is known as sacerdotalism.
In the Old Covenant, a smaller, sacerdotal priesthood existed within the larger priestly nation of Israel. As we explain, it is the same in the New Covenant.
The Bible reveals the sacerdotal priesthood to be a kind of spiritual fatherhood, which is why the Catholic Church teaches that priestly ordination is reserved for men alone. 예를 들면, in the Old Testament, the 사사기 (18:19) 상태: “Come with us, and be to us a father and a priest.”
마찬가지로, 신약 성경에, Paul writes in his 고린도 첫째 편지 (4:15) 그 “당신이 그리스도 안에서 수많은 가이드를 가지고 있지만 들어, 당신은 많은 아버지가없는. For I became your father in Christ Jesus through the Gospel.” Paul elaborates more on this spiritual fatherhood or sacerdotal priesthood at the start of that same chapter, when he says, “이 일이 우리를 생각하는 방법이다, as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God” (4:1).2
At the start of His ministry, Jesus remarked that the crowds resembled “sheep without a shepherd,” 말하기, “The harvest is plentiful, 하지만 노동자는 몇 가지; pray therefore the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into his harvest” (참조 마태 복음 9:36, 37-38). These remarks preface His selection of the Twelve Apostles, whom He empowered and sent out as His vicarious shepherds over the faithful (참조 요한 복음 21:15-17; the 사도 행전 20:28; 그리고 베드로의 첫 번째 편지 5:2). “You did not choose me,” He later reminded them, “but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit” (요한 복음 15:16). “How can men preach unless they are sent?” writes Paul in his 로마인들에게 보내는 편지, 10:15.
Nowhere in Scripture does a man assume the ministry for himself. “One does not take the honor upon himself, but is called by God, 아론이었다처럼,” write Paul in his 히브리인들에게 보내는 편지 5:4 (그의 참조 골로새서에게 보내는 편지 1:25, 또한). When certain Jewish exorcists attempt to rebuke evil spirits “by the Jesus whom Paul preaches,” the spirits reply, “Jesus I know, 바울은 알아요; but who are you?” (사도 행전, 19:13, 15).
그래서, a valid call to the ministry ordinarily involves the confirmation of the apostolic hierarchy. 예를 들면, in the Act of the Apostles (1:15), Matthias does not stand up and take his ministerial office by his own volition. He is elected according to the authority of Peter and the Apostles, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Neither does Paul, in spite of his dramatic conversion, set off on his own to preach the Gospel, claiming God’s anointing for himself. As mentioned in his Letter to the Galatians (1:18), he goes first to Jerusalem to receive the approval of the Apostles, and later he returns to verify the gospel he is preaching is correct (2:2).
While all Christians are called to evangelize, the Apostles and their successors have the unique call of safeguarding the Deposit of Faith and teaching the faithful. 안에 마태 복음 (28:19-20) Jesus says to the Apostles, “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, 아버지의 이름으로와 아들과 성령의 세례, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.”
마찬가지로, 그의 디모데에게 두 번째 편지, Paul instructs: “Guard the truth that has been entrusted to you by the Holy Spirit who dwells within us,… What you have heard from me before many witnesses entrust to faithful men who will be able to teach others also.” (절 참조 1:14; 2:2; 1:13; 그리고 사도 행전 2:42).
사실은, when His ministers teach it is Christ Himself who teaches through them as He said: “He who hears you hears me, and he who rejects you, rejects me, and he who rejects me rejects him who sent me” (누가 복음 10:16). Elsewhere He declares, “진실로, 진실로, 나는 너희에게 이르 노니, he who receives any one whom I send 저를 수신; and he who receives me receives him who sent me” (요한 복음 13:20; 강조는 추가).
The Apostles are given the authority of presiding over the Eucharistic celebration. 예를 들면, while instituting the Eucharist at the Last Supper, He bids them, “나를 기념하라” (누가 복음 22:19 and Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians, 11:23-24). The Apostles receive a unique share in His priesthood and with it the chief duty of offering the Eucharistic Sacrifice on behalf of the faithful (CF. 있다. 5:1).3
The Apostles also receive from Jesus the power to forgive sins through the gift of the keys given to Peter and the authority to” bind and loose” conferred on them as a group (CF. 매트. 16:19; 18:18). “아버지 께서 나를 보내신 것 같이,” the Savior tells them, “even so I send you. … Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained” (요한 복음 20:21-23; 강조는 추가).
- Though the fullness of the apostolic office with all its prerogatives was not passed down, the bishops, as direct successors to the Apostles, remained at the head of the hierarchy. ↩
- The word “mystery,” 그리스어, mysterion, is translated in Latin as sacramentum 또는 “sacrament.” The Greek Orthodox continue to this day to refer to the Sacraments as the sacred “Mysteries.” ↩
- The Biblical view of the Eucharist as a Sacrifice (CF. Mal. 1:11; 1 고전. 10:1-5, 15-22; 11:23-30; 있다. 10:25-26), 사실로, further points to the existence of a sacerdotal priesthood–for the presence of a sacrifice necessitates a priesthood to offer it. 교황 세인트 클레멘트, writing from Rome in about the year 96, clearly distinguished between the Eucharistic Sacrifice offered by the ministerial priesthood and the spiritual sacrifices offered by the priesthood of the laity (CF. Clement’s Letter to the Corinthians 40-41). Misunderstanding the Eucharistic Sacrifice, non-Catholics sometimes accuse Catholics of “re-sacrificing” Jesus at Mass. The Eucharistic Sacrifice is not a re-sacrificing, 그러나, but a re-presentation of the one Sacrifice of Calvary. Christ does not die again; His saving Flesh and Blood are made present on the altar under the appearances of Bread and Wine so that the faithful may “proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes” as Paul wrote in his 고린도 첫째 편지 (11:26). ↩