Holy Orders is a sacrament in which men are approved or “ordained” by the Church to perform the other six sacraments. The men may be deacons, priests or bishops.
मात्र, the sacrament of Holy Orders is performed only by bishops, and that follows directly from the Bible.
There is an established way in Scripture in which God’s call to the ministry is given and received. It flows from God to Jesus, from Jesus to the Apostles, and from the Apostles to their successors (पहा एल च्या गॉस्पेल 10:16 आणि योहानाच्या शुभवर्तमानात 13:20; 20:21). त्यामुळे, the sacrament of Holy Orders can be performed only by an Apostle or only by one on whom apostolic authority has been conferred. उदाहरणार्थ, Paul writes in his तीमथ्य याला प्रथम पत्र (4:14), “Do not neglect the gift you have, which was given you by prophetic utterance when the council of elders laid their hands upon you” (पहा 5:22, त्याचा तीमथ्याला दुसरे पत्र, 1:6, आणि त्याचे तीत पत्र 1:5). त्यामुळे, the sacrament follows an unbroken chain from Jesus to today’s newest Catholic priest. (More on this below.)
In the early Church, a hierarchy developed that consisted of bishops, presbyters (or elders), and deacons, which corresponded to Israel’s three-tiered structure of high priest, याजक, and Levites (पॉल पाहू Letter to the Phillipians, 1:1; Saint James’ पत्र, 5:14; गणना पुस्तक, 32; इतिहास 'या दुसरे पुस्तक 31:9-10).1 In Israel, the priest was seen as God’s unique emissary (पहा मलाखी 2:7), being set apart from the assembly by an anointing and the imposition of hands (पहा लोंढा 30:30 किंवा अनुवाद 34:9).
Given that the Apostles were Jews, the Church adopted these Jewish customs for her rite of ordination.
Aren’t We all Priests?
कोणत्याही, but sometimes people are confused by the Bible’s message that all believers are called to share in Christ’s priesthood. उदाहरणार्थ, Saint Peter’s प्रथम पत्र (2:9) states, “You are a chosen race, राज्याचे याजक, एक पवित्र राष्ट्र-, God’s own people.” These words are a reference back to लोंढा 19:6, “You shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”
Reserving the authority to perform sacraments to a special group of individuals (याजक) is known as sacerdotalism.
In the Old Covenant, a smaller, sacerdotal priesthood existed within the larger priestly nation of Israel. As we explain, it is the same in the New Covenant.
The Bible reveals the sacerdotal priesthood to be a kind of spiritual fatherhood, which is why the Catholic Church teaches that priestly ordination is reserved for men alone. उदाहरणार्थ, in the Old Testament, अगोदर निर्देश केलेल्या बाबीसंबंधी बोलताना Book of Judges (18:19) states: “आमच्या सोबत ये, and be to us a father and a priest.”
तसेच, नवीन करार, Paul writes in his करिंथकर प्रथम पत्र (4:15) त्या “कारण तुम्ही ख्रिस्तामध्ये अगणित मार्गदर्शक असले तरी, आपण पुष्कळ वडील नाहीत. For I became your father in Christ Jesus through the Gospel.” Paul elaborates more on this spiritual fatherhood or sacerdotal priesthood at the start of that same chapter, when he says, “हे एक आपल्याला लक्ष पाहिजे, as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God” (4:1).2
At the start of His ministry, Jesus remarked that the crowds resembled “sheep without a shepherd,” तो म्हणाला, “The harvest is plentiful, पण कामकरी थोडे आहेत; pray therefore the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into his harvest” (पहा मॅथ्यू 9:36, 37-38). These remarks preface His selection of the Twelve Apostles, whom He empowered and sent out as His vicarious shepherds over the faithful (पहा योहानाच्या शुभवर्तमानात 21:15-17; अगोदर निर्देश केलेल्या बाबीसंबंधी बोलताना प्रेषितांची कृत्ये 20:28; आणि पीटर च्या प्रथम पत्र 5:2). “You did not choose me,” He later reminded them, “but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit” (जॉन 15:16). “How can men preach unless they are sent?” writes Paul in his रोम पत्र, 10:15.
Nowhere in Scripture does a man assume the ministry for himself. “One does not take the honor upon himself, but is called by God, अहरोनाला होते फक्त म्हणून,” write Paul in his इब्री लोकांस पत्र 5:4 (त्याच्या पाहू Letter to the Colossians 1:25, देखील). When certain Jewish exorcists attempt to rebuke evil spirits “by the Jesus whom Paul preaches,” the spirits reply, “Jesus I know, पौल मला माहीत आहे; but who are you?” (प्रेषितांची कृत्ये, 19:13, 15).
त्यामुळे, a valid call to the ministry ordinarily involves the confirmation of the apostolic hierarchy. उदाहरणार्थ, in the Act of the Apostles (1:15), Matthias does not stand up and take his ministerial office by his own volition. He is elected according to the authority of Peter and the Apostles, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Neither does Paul, in spite of his dramatic conversion, set off on his own to preach the Gospel, claiming God’s anointing for himself. As mentioned in his गलतीकरांस पत्र (1:18), he goes first to Jerusalem to receive the approval of the Apostles, and later he returns to verify the gospel he is preaching is correct (2:2).
While all Christians are called to evangelize, the Apostles and their successors have the unique call of safeguarding the Deposit of Faith and teaching the faithful. In the मॅथ्यू शुभवर्तमानात (28:19-20) Jesus says to the Apostles, “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, पित्याच्या नावाने पुत्र आणि पवित्र आत्मा बाप्तिस्मा, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.”
तसेच, in his तीमथ्याला दुसरे पत्र, Paul instructs: “Guard the truth that has been entrusted to you by the Holy Spirit who dwells within us,… What you have heard from me before many witnesses entrust to faithful men who will be able to teach others also.” (अध्याय पाहू 1:14; 2:2; 1:13; आणि प्रेषितांची कृत्ये 2:42).
Actually, when His ministers teach it is Christ Himself who teaches through them as He said: “He who hears you hears me, and he who rejects you, rejects me, and he who rejects me rejects him who sent me” (लूक 10:16). Elsewhere He declares, “खरे सांगतो, खरोखर, मी तुम्हांला सांगतो, he who receives any one whom I send मला स्वीकारतो; and he who receives me receives him who sent me” (जॉन 13:20; भर जोडले).
The Apostles are given the authority of presiding over the Eucharistic celebration. उदाहरणार्थ, while instituting the Eucharist at the Last Supper, He bids them, “Do this in remembrance of me” (लूक 22:19 and Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians, 11:23-24). The Apostles receive a unique share in His priesthood and with it the chief duty of offering the Eucharistic Sacrifice on behalf of the faithful (CF. आहे. 5:1).3
The Apostles also receive from Jesus the power to forgive sins through the gift of the keys given to Peter and the authority to” bind and loose” conferred on them as a group (CF. मॅट. 16:19; 18:18). “पित्याने मला पाठविले आहे म्हणून,” the Savior tells them, “तरीही I send you. … Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained” (जॉन 20:21-23; भर जोडले).
- Though the fullness of the apostolic office with all its prerogatives was not passed down, the bishops, as direct successors to the Apostles, remained at the head of the hierarchy. ↩
- The word “mystery,” ग्रीक, mysterion, is translated in Latin as sacramentum किंवा “sacrament.” The Greek Orthodox continue to this day to refer to the Sacraments as the sacred “Mysteries.” ↩
- The Biblical view of the Eucharist as a Sacrifice (CF. Mal. 1:11; 1 करिंथ. 10:1-5, 15-22; 11:23-30; आहे. 10:25-26), खरं तर, further points to the existence of a sacerdotal priesthood–for the presence of a sacrifice necessitates a priesthood to offer it. पोप सेंट क्लेमेंट, writing from Rome in about the year 96, clearly distinguished between the Eucharistic Sacrifice offered by the ministerial priesthood and the spiritual sacrifices offered by the priesthood of the laity (CF. Clement’s Letter to the Corinthians 40-41). Misunderstanding the Eucharistic Sacrifice, non-Catholics sometimes accuse Catholics of “re-sacrificing” Jesus at Mass. The Eucharistic Sacrifice is not a re-sacrificing, मात्र, but a re-presentation of the one Sacrifice of Calvary. Christ does not die again; His saving Flesh and Blood are made present on the altar under the appearances of Bread and Wine so that the faithful may “proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes” as Paul wrote in his करिंथकर प्रथम पत्र (11:26). ↩