Ekaristi

Why Do Catholics believe the Eucharist is the Body and Blood of Jesus?

Image of The Last Supper by Albrecht BoutsThe short answer is that Catholics believe the Eucharist is the Body and Blood of Jesus because it was taught by Jesus, Diri-Nya, and recorded in the Bible.

On the night He was betrayed, He gathered with His Apostles to celebrate Passover, the ritualistic meal eaten by the Israelites (on the eve of their liberation from bondage in Egypt).

The Passover meal included the flesh of the sacrificial lamb (see Exodus, 12:8). The Last Supper, which took place on the eve of man’s liberation from sin, is the fulfillment of the Passover meal.

On that night, now known as Holy Thursday, Yesus, the Lamb of God, gave His own Flesh and Blood to be eaten by the faithful–sacramentally, in the form of Bread and Wine.1

Jehovah’s Witnesses and other groups commonly object to Catholic teaching on the Eucharist on the grounds it violates the Old Testament prohibition against the eating of blood. In Mark’s Gospel 7:18-19, Walau bagaimanapun, Jesus removed the burden of the Mosaic dietary restrictions—including the eating of blood—from His followers. At the Council of Jerusalem the Apostles did forbid the eating of blood, though only in particular situations to avoid unnecessarily offending the Jews (lihat Kisah Para Rasul 15:29 dan 21:25).

roti mengambil, berkat ia, memecahkannya, dan mengedarkan ia di antara para rasul, jesus said, "Ambil, makan; inilah tubuh-Ku " (Matthew 26:26). Kemudian Dia mengambil sebuah cawan, yang Dia juga diberkati, lalu memberikannya kepada mereka, berkata, "Minum daripadanya, kamu semua; untuk ini adalah darah saya perjanjian, yang ditumpahkan bagi banyak orang untuk pengampunan dosa " (Matthew 26:27-28). Walaupun Yesus sering bercakap secara kiasan semasa pelayanan-Nya, pada masa penting ini Dia berkata-kata. "Inilah tubuh-Ku,"Beliau berkata,, without explanation. "Ini adalah darah saya." Adalah sukar untuk membayangkan bagaimana Tuhan boleh menjadi lebih langsung.

Image of Communion of the Apostles by Justus Ghentinstitusi Yesus Ekaristi pada Perjamuan Akhir memenuhi Roti terkenal Nya Life khutbah, which is recorded in the sixth chapter of the Gospel of John. Syarahan ini didahulukan dengan pendaraban roti dan ikan, by which thousands are miraculously fed from a tiny amount of food (melihat John 6:4 although that miracle appears in all four Gospels). This event is a Eucharistic metaphor, occurring as it does during Passover and having been effected by the same formula Jesus would later use at the Last Supper—taking the loaves, mengucap syukur, dan mengedarkan mereka (John 6:11). Ketika orang-orang kembali pada hari berikutnya untuk menuntut suatu tanda ajaib daripada-Nya, balik bagaimana nenek moyang mereka telah diberi manna di padang gurun (as in Exodus 16:14), Jesus replies, "Sesungguhnya, benar-benar, Aku berkata kepadamu:, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven; my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven, and gives life to the world” (John 6:32-33).

"Tuhan, give us this bread always,” they cry (John 6:34).

"Akulah roti hidup;,” He responds; “he who comes to me shall not hunger, dan siapa yang percaya kepada-Ku tidak akan haus " (6:35). Walaupun perkataan-Nya membuat orang-orang Yahudi tidak selesa, Yesus terus tanpa henti, Ucapan beliau semakin berkembang lebih grafik:

47 "Sesungguhnya, benar-benar, Aku berkata kepadamu:, he who believes has eternal life.

48 Akulah roti hidup;.

49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, dan mereka mati.

50 This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that a man may eat of it and not die.

51 I am the living bread which came down from heaven; setiap orang yang makan roti ini, ia akan hidup selama-lamanya; dan the bread which I shall give for the life of the world is my flesh” (6:47-51; penekanan ditambah).

Ayat 51 contains indisputable proof that Jesus is not speaking figuratively, for He identifies the Bread which must be eaten as the same Flesh that would suffer and die on the Cross. To assert that in referring to His Flesh in this passage He is speaking symbolically is to say the Flesh that suffered and died on the Cross was merely a symbol, for they are one and the same!2

"Bagaimana Ia ini dapat memberikan daging-Nya untuk makan?” the people ask (6:52).

Walaupun kebingungan mereka, Jesus proceeds all the more emphatically:

"Sesungguhnya, benar-benar, Aku berkata kepadamu:, jikalau kamu tidak makan daging Anak Manusia dan minum darah-Nya, kamu tidak mempunyai hidup di dalam dirimu; Barangsiapa makan daging-Ku dan minum darah-Ku mempunyai hidup yang kekal, dan Aku akan membangkitkan dia pada akhir zaman. Untuk daging-Ku adalah sesungguhnya makanan, dan darahku sesungguhnya minuman. Sesiapa yang makan daging-Ku dan minum darah-Ku tinggal di dalam Aku, dan Aku dengan dia. Sama seperti Bapa yang hidup mengutus Aku, dan Aku hidup oleh Bapa, demikian juga barangsiapa yang memakan Aku, akan hidup oleh Aku. Inilah roti yang telah turun dari langit, tidak seperti bapa-bapa makan dan mati; Barangsiapa makan roti ini akan hidup selama-lamanya " (6:53-58; penekanan ditambah).

Sambutan Eucharist adalah penting dalam kehidupan orang-orang Kristian awal, yang "menumpu perhatian mereka kepada pengajaran dan persekutuan rasul-rasul, untuk memecahkan roti dan berdoa " (Lihat Kisah Para Rasul 2:42). Note that “The breaking of bread and the prayers” refers to the Liturgy.

Only a few years after the death of the last Apostle, Saint Ignatius dari Antioch (d. ca. 107) described the Liturgy the same way, denouncing heretics for abstaining “from the Eucharist and from prayer” (Surat kepada Smyrnaeans 6:2). That the early Church, tambahan pula, took Sunday, the day of the Resurrection, as her Sabbath is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles 20:7, yang mengatakan, “On the first day of the week, … we were gathered together to break bread …” (cf. Didache 14; Justin Martyr, First Apology 67).

Saint Paul identifies both the manna and the rock that spew forth water for the Israelites as Eucharistic metaphors. "Semua makan makanan ghaib yang sama dan mereka semua minum minuman ghaib yang sama," dia menulis. "Bagi mereka minum dari Rock ghaib yang mengikuti mereka, dan batu karang itu ialah Kristus " (See his First Letter to the Corinthians10:3-4 as well as the Book of Revelations 2:17). He goes on to admonish the Corinthians for their lack of reverence in receiving the Eucharist, bertulis:

11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread

24 dan apabila dia telah mengucap syukur, berkat, memecah, dan berkata, This is my body which is for you. Adakah ini menjadi peringatan akan Aku.

25 In the same way also the cup, after supper, berkata, This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Melakukan ini, seberapa kerap yang anda minum, in remembrance of me.

26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

27 Sesiapa yang, Oleh itu,, makan roti atau minum cawan Tuhan dengan cara yang tidak layak akan melakukan demikian menajiskan tubuh dan darah Tuhan.

28 Hendaklah orang yang memeriksa dirinya, dan sebagainya makanlah roti ini dan minum cawan.

29 Bagi mana-mana orang yang makan dan minum tanpa pandai menilai yang makan badan dan minuman penghakiman keatas dia.

30 Itulah sebabnya ramai daripada anda lemah dan sakit, and some have died (lihat Matius 5:23-24, terlalu).

Per verse 27, to receive the Eucharist unworthily is to sin against the Body and Blood of the Lord. Jadi, ia adalah bernilai bertanya: how could the unworthy reception of ordinary bread and wine amount to a sin against the Body and Blood of Jesus? Paul says even that the impious reception of the Eucharist is the reason “why many of you are weak and ill, dan ada yang mati " (v. 30).

It is only fitting that the most famous early Patristic (Church Father) statements on the Real Presence come from Saint Ignatius of Antioch, who learned the Faith seated at the feet of the Evangelist John. In about the year A.D. 107, using the Church’s Eucharistic teaching to defend the Incarnation against the Docetists, who denied Jesus had truly come in the flesh, Ignatius wrote:

Take note of those who hold heterodox opinions on the grace of Jesus Christ which has come to us, dan melihat bagaimana bertentangan pendapat mereka adalah untuk fikiran Tuhan. ... Mereka menahan diri daripada Ekaristi dan sembahyang, kerana mereka tidak mengaku bahawa Ekaristi adalah Flesh Juruselamat kita Yesus Kristus, Flesh yang mengalami untuk dosa-dosa kita dan yang Bapa, dalam kebaikan-Nya, raised up again (Surat kepada Smyrnaeans 6:2; 7:1).

The Body sama yang menderita dan mati di kayu salib untuk dosa-dosa kita dan kembali dari antara orang mati, sebagai Ignatius menjelaskan, hadir kepada kita dalam Ekaristi Kudus (melihat John 6:51).

Saint Justin Martyr, writing around 150, berkata Ekaristi Roti dan Wain diterima "bukan roti seperti biasa atau minuman biasa,"Untuk Mereka adalah" daging dan darah Yesus menjelma " (First Apology 66).

dalam kira-kira 185, Saint Irenaeus Lyons, guru yang Saint Polycarp Smyrna (d. ca. 156) juga tahu John, bercakap mengenai Ekaristi dalam mempertahankan kebangkitan badan terhadap ajaran Gnostik. "Jika badan dapat tidak disimpan,"Berhujah Saint, "kemudian, sebenarnya, tidak adakah Tuhan menebus kita dengan darah-Nya; begitu juga cawan Ekaristi yang mengambil bahagian didalam darah-Nya mahupun Roti yang kita melanggar mengambil bahagian didalam Tubuh-Nya (1 Warna. 10:16)" (penentangan bidaah 5:2:2).

Origen remarked of the Eucharist around the middle of the third century, “Formerly, in an obscure way, there was manna for food; sekarang, Walau bagaimanapun, in full view, there is the True Food, the Flesh of the Word of God, as he himself says: ‘My Flesh is true food, and my Blood is true drink’ (John 6:56)" (Homilies on Numbers 7:2).

Begitu juga, Saint Cyprian Carthage (d. 258) menulis:

We ask that this bread be given us daily (cf. Matt. 6:11), so that we who are in Christ and daily receive the Eucharist as the food of salvation, may not, by falling into some more grievous sin and then abstaining from communicating, be withheld from the heavenly Bread, and be separated from Christ’s Body. … He Himself warns us, berkata, “Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you shall not have life in you” (John 6:54) (The Lord’s Prayer 18).

  1. The blood of the Passover lamb was not consumed. Sebenarnya, it was forbidden for Israel to consume the blood of any animal, as blood represented the life force of the animal, which belonged to God alone (lihat Kejadian, 9:4, and Leviticus, 7:26). Sebaliknya, in the Eucharist, God wishes to share His Blood, His very Life, with us to nourish us sacramentally. In this ineffable Gift we become one flesh and blood, one spirit, with God (melihat Injil Yohanes 6:56-57 and the Book of Revelations, 3:20).
  2. Jesus does use symbolic language in reference to Himself elsewhere in John’s Injil, calling Himself “the door” and “the vine,” for example (10:7 dan 15:5, masing-masing). In these other instances, Walau bagaimanapun, He does not apply nearly the same emphasis to His words that He does in John 6, in which He repeats Himself again and again with increasing clarity. Nor do these other sayings engender controversy among the listeners the way His words in John 6 do. Lebih-lebih lagi, the Evangelist John actually informs us Jesus is speaking figuratively in John 10:6, something he does not do in the sixth chapter.