Mfundo ya Mary

Chifaniziro cha Imfa ya Virgin ndi Duccio di Buoninsegna

Imfa ya Virgin ndi Duccio di Buoninsegna

The Mfundo ndi chikhulupiriro chakuti Mary, pa mapeto a moyo wake padziko lapansi, anali kudya thupi ndi moyo kumwamba. Izo ndizo tanthauzo la malemba osiyanasiyana Lemba, mwina kwambiri momveka bwino mu Chivumbulutso 12, ndipo anakhulupirira mwa Akhristu oyambirira, monga mmene Mwambo wochitika pamapemphero akale ndi malembo. Mwina kwambiri m'mbiri wosonyeza la Akukwera, Komabe, n'chakuti palibe munthu kapena dera wakhala sananene kuti likhale thupi Mariya.1 Munthu angathe kukhala winawake amene anali ndi thupi la Mary, anthu ambiri lokwezeka la Oyera, anakhalabe padziko lapansi, otsatira a Khristu akanakhala bwino mosazindikira.

Pakhala kuti pali zikhulupiriro zosiyana za malo a m'kupita Mariya: akuloza mmodzi ku Yerusalemu; ena ku Efeso. Wa awiriwo, mwambo wakale ndi wamkulu ndi bwino m'Malemba. Chochititsa chidwi n'chakuti, chopanda kanthu, kumanda oyambirira anapeza pa yokumba pa malo akuwonongedwa mu Yerusalemu 1972 (onani Bellarmino Bagatti, Michael Piccirillo, ndi Albert Prodomo, O.F.M., Kutulukira zinthu zatsopano pa manda wa Virgin Mary mu Getsemane, Yerusalemu: Francis yosindikiza Press, 1975). Akatswiri ena adakayika kuona kwake m'manda zimenezi chifukwa sanali akutchulidwa ndi Abambo oyambirira amene anakhala Palestine, monga Cyril wa Yerusalemu (D. 386), Epiphanius (D. 403), ndi Jerome (D. 420). Koma, monga Archeologist Bellarmino Bagatti anafotokoza, kumanda Mariya zambiri kukanidwa ndi Akhristu oyambirira anachokera Amitundu chifukwa anaima panyumba ya Judeo Akhristu, amene “ankatengedwa schismatics ngati si ampatuko” (Ibid., tsa. 15). Pachifukwa chomwechi, malo ena woyera, monga Malo Upper, samapezeka mabuku oyambirira (Ibid.). Tiyenera kukumbukira komanso kuti asilikali a Roma General Tito anawononga Yerusalemu m'chaka 70, kubisa malo opatulika ku Chiyuda ndi Chikristu pansi chomenyedwa ndi. mu 135, Mfumu Hadrian angaimbidwenso mzinda kachiwiri ndi cholinga chenicheni cha kumanga akachisi achikunja pamwamba pa bwinja la malo oyera. Malo a papita ndi ena malo opatulika Mariya anakhalabe otaika mpaka zana lachinayi osachepera pamene Mfumu Constantine Wamkulu pang'onopang'ono anayamba kubwezeretsa Chikhristu malo yolemekezeka, kuyambira Woyera Manda mu 336.] The Mfundo chitsanzo cha ophunzira a Kristu Iye mu kuuka kwa thupi, kunenanso chenicheni chimene Akristu onse ndikuyembekeza. pamapeto, izo zikutsimikiza kuti chiyero chake, Komanso, koma chiyeretso cha Yesu, amene nkhani analandira mphamvu yotha wapadera.

Ngakhale wakhala adakhulupirira ndi Akhristu, ndi Mfundo anali mwalamulo anatchedwa chiphunzitso cha Mpingo wa Katolika Papa Pius XII mu 1950. Ndithu, sakhoza kuona nzeru za Mulungu mwachikondi otsimikiza Mary thupi kuuka kwa dziko pa midpoint zaka zimene anaona kupanda chilungamo ambiri manda motsutsa ulemu wa munthu. Pa nthawi yolengeza chiphunzitso ndi, dziko kuyambika ku zoopsa wa Nazi imfa ndipo mwamsanga akuyandikira kupha mwana wosabadwa boma otetezedwa. Anthu otchuka wa mkazi ndi ntchito yake mkulu wa mayi makamaka achitiridwa nkhanza ndi anthu masiku ano, omwe maganizo inordinately kukongola kwake kunja nafunafuna nthawi kuchepetsa iye chinthu chilakolako. Mosiyana kwambiri ndi mauthenga awa a chikhalidwe cha imfa, Mariya Mfundo watero ulemu ukazi ndi thupi, wa munthu, mwa njira yamphamvu.

Ascension wa Virgin ndi Albrecht ayi

Ascension wa Virgin ndi Albrecht ayi

Chiphunzitso cha Akukwera umakhala pa ulamuliro Mpingo kudyetsa nkhosa Khristu (cf. John 21:15-17; Luka 10:16) ndi lonjezo Mpulumutsi wathu kuti Mpingo Wake adzaphunzitsa choonadi (cf. John 14:26; 16:13; Matt. 16:18-19; 1 Tim. 3:15). ulamuliro osalephera wakhala anakhulupirira polosera chiphunzitso choona pamene mikangano amaimirira pakati wokhulupirika. Ife tikuona mu maitanidwe a Bungwe la Jerusalem (Machitidwe 15); kufunafuna Paulo a Atumwi’ ovomerezeka a zaka Ulaliki ambiri atatembenuka (Gal. 2:1-2); ndi zochita za akulu yamasika Zazipembedzo, amene analengeza umulungu wa Khristu mu 325, umulungu wa Mzimu Woyera 381, ndi Mariya umayi Mulungu 431.

Theologically, Akukwera ndi yogwirizana ndi mimba kwachiyero, umene umati Mary, ndi chisomo chapadera kwa Mulungu, anapulumuka ku litsiro la uchimo woyambirira ku nthawi yoyamba aliko wake. ufulu ku uchimo wonse lonjezo la Mulungu pa kugwa kwa munthu ku malo udani pakati pa mdierekezi ndi mayi a Muomboli (Gen. 3:15). Kubwerera ku nthawi utumwi, Mpingo wakhala ankaopedwa Mary monga Eva Latsopano, womuthandizira wokhulupirika wa Chatsopano Adam. Monga Eva koyamba mabodza a Satana, mngelo wakugwa, ndi pokana dongosolo la Mulungu anabweretsa uchimo ndi imfa m'dziko; kotero Hava Chatsopano anakhulupirira choonadi cha Gabriel, Mngelowamkulu, ndi kugwirizana ndi chikonzero cha Mulungu anabweretsa chipulumutso ndi moyo m'dziko. Poona Mary monga Eva Latsopano, Komanso, timaona kuti orchestrating chiwombolo chathu, Mulungu m'njira n'zosadabwitsa weniweni chinathetsa zochitika kugwa wathu. poyamba, Mwachitsanzo, Adam adayamba; ndi Hava anapangidwa kuchokera m'thupi lake. Mu chiwombolo, Mary, Eva Latsopano, adayamba; ndi Khristu, Adamu Latsopano, unakhazikitsidwa ku thupi lake. kulikonse, ichi ndi chifukwa chake mu Chipangano Chatsopano mkazi ndi mwamuna mayi ndi mwana, osati akazi monga Adamu ndi Hava anali.

Kuti Mary wogwidwa wosalakwa Hava pamaso kugwa zikutanthauza kuti iye ayenera osapatsidwa chilango chake: ululu ndi imfa thupi (cf. Gen. 3:16, 19; Rom. 6:23). Ngakhale kuti ndisafike izi kwathunthu, Komabe, n'koyenera osachepera kuti zisomo zapadera anapatsidwa wake pobereka ndi imfa.2

Coronation wa Virgin ndi Amitundu da Fabriano

Corontion wa Virgin ndi Amitundu da Fabriano

Ngati kuwuka kwa matupi a oyera pambuyo kupachikidwa (cf. Matt. 27:52), ndi Mfundo ndi kalambulabwalo za kuuka kwa thupi kwa okhulupirika pa Tsiku la Chiweruzo, pamene iwo adzakhala “mmwamba … m'mitambo, kukakomana ndi Ambuye mumlengalenga,” (1 Ates. 4:17).3 Baibulo silinena kutsutsa mfundo ndi maganizo thupi kumwamba. mu Lemba, Enoch ndi Eliya akutengedwa mmwamba mu thupi kwa kumwamba (cf. Gen. 5:24; 2 Kgs. 2:11; ndi. 11:5). Ndi zoona kuti Baibulo si Kuneneratu kuti Mary anali ankaganiza. Komabe ndi chizindikiro chomwecho, Baibulo samakana kapena kuzitsutsa Mfundo yake.4 Komanso, pamene nkhani mwachindunji Akukwera sapezeka Lemba, mwina anaganiza ku ndime zina za Likasa la Pangano, choyimira cha Mary. Likasa anapanga matabwa chosawonongeka, n'kuukuta ndi golide woyenga bwino chifukwa chiyero cha zinthu izo yokonzedwa kuchita chimodzimodzi (cf. Ex. 25:10-11); komanso Virgin analengedwa ndi chiyero ndi lauzimu kuwonongeka pokonzekera kubala Mwana wa Mulungu. Kuti thupi Mariya incorrupt, Likasa la Chipangano Chatsopano, adzatengedwe kumwamba akusonyeza mu Salmo 132:8, lomwe limati, “Tawuka, O Ambuye, ndi kupita ku mpumulo wako malo, iwe ndi likasa la mphamvu zanu.” Kuti Old-Pangano Likasa mwachinsinsi anasowa pa malo ena mbiri akusonyeza mmene Lady Wathu Mfundo komanso.5 Chotengera wopatulika chobisikabe kwa zaka mpaka Mtumwi Yohane anagwira chithunzithunzi cha kumwamba, pamene akulongosola mu Chivumbulutso: “Ndiye kachisi wa Mulungu kumwamba atatsegulidwa, ndipo likasa la chipangano chake chinaoneka m'kachisi wake … . Ndi chenjezo lalikulu m'mwamba,, mkazi wovekedwa dzuwa, ndi mwezi kumapazi ace, ndi pamutu pake Korona wa nyenyezi khumi ndi ziwiri” (11:19, 12:1). M'masomphenya a Yohane a Amayi a Muomboli kukhala thupi m'paradaiso ndi chinthu chapafupi tili ndi nkhani yekha Akukwera. Iye akupitiriza kufotokoza kuti iye anatengedwa kupita kumwamba zotsatirazi Ascension la Ambuye. “mwana wake,” akulengeza, “mmwamba kwa Mulungu ndi kumpando wake wachifumu, ndipo mkaziyo anathawira kuchipululu, kumene iye ali mbuto yokonzekeratu ndi Mulungu, amene bwino ntchito m'thupi kwa chikwi mazana awiri ndi masiku makumi asanu ndi limodzi” (12:5-6). Mofananamo iye anati, “Ndipo anapatsa mkazi mapiko awiri a chiwombankhanga chachikulu kuti akaulukire ku njoka m'chipululu, kumalo kumene iye kuti adyetsedwako kanthawi ndi nthawi, ndi zina, ndi theka lanthawi” (12:14).6

Oyambirira zolemba zomwe zilipo pa Akukwera ndi osiyanasiyana osavomerezedwa ndi pseudoepigraphical malemba, amene akugwa pansi pa mutu wakuti ambiri a ndime ya Virgin Mary kapena Zazoipa Mary. The wamkulu wa izi, amakhulupirira kuti analemba m'zaka za wachiwiri ndi Leucius Karinus, wophunzira wa John, akuganiza kuzikidwa pa chikalata oyambirira nyengo ya utumwi, amene salinso zilipo.7

kukhulupirira kumayambiriro Church kuti Namwali Wodalitsidwa anali incorrupt mu thupi ndi moyo wonse kuthandiza Akukwera. The anonymous Kalata Diognetus (cf. 125), Mwachitsanzo, amatanthauza wake monga Virgin kuti sangapusitsidwe.8 Pamenepo, Olemba ambiri akale, makamaka Oyera Justin ndi Martyr (D. monga. 165) ndipo Irenaeus wa Lyons (D. monga. 202), anasiyanitsa Mary mu kukhulupirika kwake kwa Eva uchimo wake. Saint Hippolytus wa Rome (D. 235), wophunzira Ireneaus, poyerekeza thupi Mary kwa “matabwa chosawonongeka” Likasa (Ndemanga pa Salimo 22). The Mu Anu pemphero, analemba mu za m'ma lachitatu, limati Mary “yekha wangwiro ndipo nokha wodala.”

Mu Saint Efraimu wa Suriya Nyimbo pa kubadwa kwa Yesu, kuyambira m'zaka za m'ma wachinayi, ntchito zithunzi zimene akukumbukira Chivumbulutso 12:4, Mary Zikuoneka kuneneratu zamtundu wa thupi lake kumwamba, kuti, “Khanda kuti ine kunyamula yatengedwa ine … . Iye akotama nthenga zake ndi anatenga wondiviika pakati pa mapiko ake ndipo anasangalala kwambiri mu mlengalenga” (17:1). mu 377, Saint Epiphanius wa Salami analemba, “Kodi Mary woyera alibe ufumu wa kumwamba ndi thupi lake, chifukwa iye sanali osadzisamalira, kapena wosadziletsa, kapena iye anayamba chigololo, ndipo popeza iye sanachite konse chirichonse cholakwika momwe zochita za thupi nkhawa, koma anakhalabe zosapanga?” (Panarion 42:12). Ena amanena iye sakanakhoza ndakhulupirira Akukwera popeza iye akulankhula apa za Mary thupi kulowa kumwamba kuti zinachitika tsogolo. Koma iye ananena pambuyo pake chikalata chomwecho, “Ngati iye anaphedwa, … ndiye iye analandira ulemerero pamodzi ndi ofera, ndipo thupi lake … Akhala mwa anthu amene amasangalala ndi wogoneka wodala” (Ibid. 78:23; motsindika anawonjezera). Kufalitsa pa imfa yake, Iye anapitiriza kunena kuti kaya

anamwalira kapena sanafe, … iye anaikidwa kapena ayi m'manda. … Lemba Kungoti chete, chifukwa cha ukulu wa prodigy ndi, Pofuna kuti akanthe mtima wa munthu ndi kumwetsa zodabwitsa. …

Ngati Virgin woyera wafa ndipo anaika, Ndithu ulamuliro wake chinachitika ndi ulemu waukulu; mapeto ake anali kwambiri koyera ndi korona ndi virginit. …

Kapena iye anapitiriza kukhala. Pakuti, Mulungu, ndi kosatheka kuti ayesetsa Wamfuna; mbali inayi, palibe amene amadziwa chomwe mathero ake anali (Ibid. 78:11, 23).

Kuti Epiphanius sankadziwa tsatanetsatane wa Mariya m'kupita mwangwiro zomveka–Akhristu sindikudziwa mwatsatanetsatane ndi zikuoneka Atumwi sanadziwe kapena, pakuti thupi lake anatengedwa kuchokera mkati manda akachita.9 Mosiyana olemba ena oyambirira, Komabe, Epiphanius kupewa kupeka mfundo yekha. Koma iye sankadziwa zimene zinachitika, iye anadziwa, mu kuwala kwa Mariya kupatulika wangwiro, kuti m'kupita wake kuti akhala mozizwitsa–chinachake chimene chikanati “akanthe mtima wa munthu ndi kumwetsa zodabwitsa”–ndipo iye sakanakhoza kukhala anakhalabe mmanda. “Mu Chivumbulutso a John,” ananenanso, “timawerenga kuti chinjoka chinaponyedwa yekha pa mkazi amene adabala mwana wamwamuna; koma mapiko a mphungu anapatsidwa mkazi, ndipo iye anawulukira ku chipululu, chinjoka sakanakhoza kufika kwake. Izi zikhoza zachitika Nkhani ya Mary (Rev. 12:13-14)” (Ibid. 78:11).

Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma wachisanu, kapena kale, phwando la chikumbutso la Mary–ndiko, mwambo wokumbukira akuwonongedwa–usanafike ku East mapemphero, kuwayika iwo pakati wamkulu wa boma masiku a mpingo phwando.10 Padziko chaka 400, Chrysippus wa Yerusalemu ndemanga Salmo 132, “The moona achifumu Likasa, Likasa wapatali kwambiri, anali yomwe Virgin Theotokos; Likasa amene analandira chuma cha kuyeretsedwa onse” (pa Salimo 131(132)).

Olemba Orthodox ku nthawi yomweyi nthawi, ntchito mu dzina cholembera wa Saint Melito wa ku Sarde, pafupi-m'nthawi ya Leucius, adamlalatira chifukwa chokhala “anaipsa lemba amakezana polongosola mfundo wake amene samagwirizana ndi chiphunzitso cha Atumwi” (Bagatti, neri Al., tsa. 11). Wolemba izi anayesetsa kubwezeretsa nkhani woona wa Akukwera, chimene iye ananena Leucius anali “angaipsidwe ndi cholembera wakuipa” (Panafunika ndi Virgin Woyera, Mawu oyamba).

m'ma 437, Saint Quodvultdeus anazindikira Woman mu Chivumbulutso 12 monga Wodala Virgin, tingadziwe, “Pasakhale wina wa inu amanyalanyaza (mfundo) amene chinjoka (mu Chivumbulutso a mtumwi Yohane) ndi mdierekezi; mukudziwa kuti namwali chikutidziwitsa Mary, munthu wodzisunga, amene anabereka mitu yathu yoyera” (Chachitatu Homily 3:5).

Pafupifupi m'zaka za m'ma wachisanu, Saint Hesychius wa Yerusalemu analemba, “Likasa la kuyeretsedwa wako, Theotokos Virgin ndithu. Ngati muli ngale ndiye iye ayenera kukhala Likasa” (Homily pa Holy Mary, Amayi a Mulungu). kuzungulira 530, Oecumenius anati kwa Chivumbulutso 12, “Moyenerera Kodi masomphenya amuonetse kumwamba osati za padziko, wangwiro mu moyo ndi thupi” (Ndemanga pa Apocalpyse). Kulemba wa Akukwera chakumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma chimodzi, Saint Gregory wa Tours (mosiyana Epiphanius) Kodi kupewa zinthu mosayembekezera wa kuwoloka nkhani. “Ndipo onani,” analemba Gregory, “kachiwiri Ambuye adayimilirapo (Atumwi); thupi woyera (a Mary) popeza analandira, Iye analamula kuti anatengedwa mu mtambo paradaiso” (Eyiti Books wa Miracles 1:4).

Otsutsa ziphunzitso Mpingo wa Marian apanga zambiri chakuti oyambirira odziwika nkhani ya Akukwera zimapezeka mabuku owonjezera, ndi kuti Fathers Church sananene izo zisanafike zaka mochedwa-wachinayi.

Ndizowonanso, Komabe, kuti Fathers sankanyoza kukonza kukhulupirira Akukwera; amangoika chete pa nkhaniyi–ndi maganizo n'kale lonse ngati anali kuphunzitsa za mpatuko, makamaka anapatsidwa kuchuluka kwake pakati wokhulupirika. N'zokayikitsa, poyeneradi, kuti mfundo Mfundo Mariya, amene amagwirizira kupatulika kwa thupi, akanatha anayambitsa pakati ampatuko, anapatsidwa kuti anadzudzula thupi ndi zinthu zonse zinalengedwa. The owonjezera, Pamenepo, nthawi zambiri osati ntchito za ampatuko, koma Akhristu orthodox kufunafuna zoika mfundo pa zochitika zenizeni pa moyo wa Khristu ndi oyera amene anali mwinamwake sikukudziŵika. Pamene apocryphists anamanga nkhani ya Akukwera, iwo sanali kuyambitsa izo. Mfundo yakuti kuwoloka zinakhalapo kulikonse mu dziko Christian, mu zinenero angapo, kuphatikizapo Chiheberi, Greek, Latin, Chikoputiki, Syriac, Ethiopic, ndipo Arabic, likutsimikizira nkhani ya Mfundo Mary anali kufalitsa konsekonse mu zaka oyambirira ndi, Choncho, anachokera utumwi.

Pamene Mpingo wakhala kudziwa kuopsa kudalira ntchito za chikhalidwe konyenga, izo palibe angatsutse kuti maso a choonadi zafala ntchito zimenezi. Kumbukirani, Mwachitsanzo, kuti Saint Yuda amatanthauza Kopanda cha Mose ndi choyamba Enoch mu Testament lake la Letter (onani Yuda 1:9, 14 FF.). Origin mwanzeru ananena:

Ndife sali wonyalanyaza zimene ambiri zolembedwazi chinsinsi anapangidwa anthu, wotchuka chifukwa cha kusaweruzika kwawo. … Choncho, tiyenera kugwiritsa ntchito mosamala kulandira mabuku onsewa chinsinsi chimene zimafala pansi pa dzina la oyera … chifukwa ena mwa iwo zinalembedwa kuwononga choonadi cha malemba wathu ndi zoika chiphunzitso chabodza. Mbali inayi, sitiyenera kupeweratu mabuku amene angakhale othandiza akuunika Lemba. Ndi chizindikiro cha munthu wamkulu kumva ndi kuchita malangizo a Lemba: “Yesani mizimu; kusunga zabwino” (1 Ates. 5:21) (Ndemanga pa Mateyu 28).

mu 494, Papa Saint Gelasius, kufuna kuteteza wokhulupirika motsutsa zingasokoneze asagwiritse ntchito malemba ambiri azipembedzo analembadi zokayikitsa kuti mliri dziko Christian, angandisindikizirenso mndandanda wa mabuku ovomerezeka wasenza ndi kuloŵedwa m'malo ake, Papa Saint Damasus, limodzi ndi m'ndandanda yaitali mabuku chovomerezeka ndi zosavomerezeka owonjezera.

Adani a Church apanga nkhani chakuti kulemba osavomerezedwa pa Akukwera ali m'gulu la mabuku choletsedwa Gelasius’ decre, koma Papa anadzudzula ndi osavomerezedwa chifukwa cha Akukwera, kumene, osati Mfundo palokha.

Nkhani osavomerezedwa a zikhulupiriro zina Orthodox momwemo limaletsa lamulo–ndi Protoevangelium a James, Mwachitsanzo, imafotokoza kuti Kubadwa kwa Yesu; ndi Machitidwe a Peter amachita ntchito amishonale Peter ndi kufera ku Rome. Kwambiri poti, zolemba za Tertullian ndi yoletsedwa, Koma zolemba zake, Mwachitsanzo, chabe kakuti Ubatizo ndi kulapa, amateteza malo orthodox nkhani zimenezi. Kodi Gelasius’ Pogonjetsa m'mabuku zopanda kukana Ubatizo ndi kulapa, Ndiyeno, kapena kuchita zambiri ndi funso la chikhalidwe Tertullian?

N'zoonekeratu, kuletsa bukhu mu Gelasian Watsimikiza sangathe kukhala ndi momwenso kukana buku yamuthu nkhani kapena nkhani. Nthawi zambiri, maphunziro kwambiri padzafunika mwa Church kuti asiyanitse zinthu moona zoipa m'mabuku. M'menemo, kuwayika iwo yoletsedwa anali wanzeru anapatsidwa njakata kuwazungulira.11

Iwo akufuna kupeza mu Gelasian Watsimikiza ena amagonja yosalephera waupapa, tiyenera anafotokoza kuti loletsa buku ziribe kanthu kochita ndi kudalirika kwa Papa chifukwa ndi chabe kanthu chilango, osalumikidwa ndi kutanthauzira za chiphunzitso. mwachibadwa, chinthu chilango umamumvera kusintha. Yaima m'malo moti okha ndi vuto anazindikira aliko; kamodzi vuto utadutsa, anadzudzula ndi wakwezedwa. Mu nkhani iyi, monga kunsonga kwa Baibulo anayamba kuvomereza kuopsa ndi owonjezera aleka ndi chiletso zinatha ntchito.

  1. Ichi ndi chachilendo umboni ndithu anapatsidwa Chikhristu Ambiri Amakonda chipulumutso ndi kulambira zinthu zakale wachiyero–mchitidwe umene unalembedwa kuti masiku oyambirira a chikhulupiriro monga Anaphedwa Saint Polycarp, analemba pakati pa zaka za mazana awiri, ikusonyezera.
  2. Pamene Akatolika kale ankakhulupirira Mary anali amamasulidwa ku ululu, wakhala akuyenera kuti iye analidi kufa kuti mwangwiro kugwirizana ndi Mwana wake, amene ngakhale wosachimwa imfa anavomera (cf. Phil. 2:5 FF.). Mu kumasulira chiphunzitso cha Akukwera, Pius XII kupewa kuti ena kuti wamwalira, chabe ponena iye anali “anamaliza moyo wake padziko lapansi” (Munificentissimus Deus 44).
  3. The Katekisimu wa Katolika limaphunzitsa, “The Mfundo wa Wodalitsika Virgin ndi nawo mmodzi mwa Chiukiriro Mwana wake ndi anthu kuyembekezera kuuka kwa Akhristu ena … . Iye kale mukuchita ulemerero wa Chiukiriro Mwana wake, kuyembekeza kuuka kwa mamembala a Thupi lake” (966, 974).
  4. Pali zinthu zina zofunika pa moyo wa Mpingo wa utumwi amene mulibe the New Testament komanso, monga martyrdoms a Peter ndi Paul, ndi chiwonongeko cha Yerusalemu ndi asilikali a Roma mu chaka 70. Malinga ndi mpukutu wa Muratori, analemba ku Rome chakumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma yachiwiri, Luka analemba mwa Machitidwe a Atumwi zochitika iye anaona ndi maso ake. Luka kupewa kulemba zinthu zimene si anaonapo kumatithandiza kumvetsetsa chifukwa Akukwera anali sizinalembedwe, pakuti chinachitika mkati m'manda. Mosiyana ndi kukwera kumwamba kwa Ambuye, chochitika pagulu anthu ambiri, ndi Mfundo analibe pakuona.
  5. Chachiwiri Maccabees 2:5 limanena kuti Yeremiya losindikizidwa Likasa phanga pa phiri la Nebo isanafike Ababulo wa Yerusalemu 587 B.C. (cf. 2 Kgs. 24:13, neri Al.).
  6. Chiprotestanti Amayamba kuona mkaziyu kuti mwina wophiphiritsa fanizo la Israel kapena Mpingo (cf. Gen. 37:9). Chikatolika amavomereza kutanthauzira izi, koma chimafikira kuti monga mwa njira yeniyeni Mary, Pokhala anthu a Mulungu. Israel anaberekera Khristu mophiphiritsa; Mary anam'berekera kwenikweni. Ndemanga pa ndimeyi, Saint Quodvultdeus (D. 453), ndi Bishop wa Carthage ndi wophunzira wa Saint Augustine, analemba kuti Mary “Komanso zopezeka yekha chithunzi cha mpingo woyera: ndicho, bwanji pamene kubala mwana, iye anakhalabe mdzakazi, kuti mpingo mu nthawi umabala mamembala ake, komabe iye si kutaya unamwali wake” (Chachitatu Homily pa Chikhulupiriro cha 3:6; wonaninso Clement wa Alexandria, Mlangizi wa Ana 1:6:42:1).

    The motif anthu a Mulungu kupulumuka “pa mapiko a mphungu” ku malo a chitetezo angapezeke mu Old Testament (onani Ex. 19:4; Sal. 54 (55):6-7; Isa. 40:31, neri Al.). Mulungu walonjeza “kuthawa ku chipululu” ali kwambiri anakwaniritsidwa Akukwera, Mary kukhala woimira lalikulu la anthu Ake.

    Zilembedwe ophiphiritsa Chivumbulutso 12 ku nthawi za nthawi, “masiku chikwi ndi mazana awiri sikisite” ndi “kwa kanthawi, ndi zina, ndi theka lanthawi” (6, 14), angaimire nthawi chizunzo, umene Mpingo tipirire, isanachitike Kubweranso kwa Khristu.

    vesi 12:17 limati mdierekezi, zinakwiyitsa ndi kuthawa kwa Mkazi, ananyamuka “nkhondo ndi otsala a mbewu yake, amene kusunga malamulo a Mulungu ndi umboni wa Yesu.” Kuti otsatira a Khristu amaonedwa “ena a mbewu yake” amathandiza nkhani ya Church kwa Mariya Mayi wa Akristu onse (cf. Isa. 66:8; John 19:26-27).

  7. Ngakhale pa nthawi yina kuwoloka ankaganiza kuti anayambitsa palibe kale kuposa zaka zana lachinayi, mawu ena zamulungu ntchito Leucius’ Chikalata kutsimikizira chiyambi ndi mwina m'zaka wachiwiri kapena wachitatu (Bagatti, neri Al., tsa. 14; Bagatti yofotokozedwapo ntchito zake, S. Peter mu “Dormitio Mariae,” mas. 42-48; Research pa miyambo ya imfa Namwali, mas. 185-214).
  8. amawerenga lemba lenileni: “Ngati inu kunyamula mtengo wa (chidziwitso) ndi kubudula zipatso zake, inu nthawizonse adzakhala kusonkhanitsa mu zinthu zimene zili zofunika pamaso pa Mulungu, zinthu kuti njoka musakhudze ndi chinyengo sikangathe kumdetsa. Kenako Hava satengeka, koma Virgin amapezeka odalirika” (Kalata Diognetus 12:7-9). Ponena ndimeyi, Cyril m'ma. Richardson ndemanga, “Ndi mwachilungamo zoonekeratu kuti wolemba akufuna kunena wamba Patristic Mosiyana … pakati Hava, osamvera mayi wa imfa, ndi Mary, omvera mayi wa moyo, Ngati zimene parthenos lemba la adzakhala wodala Virgin Mary” (Fathers Early Christian, New York: insaikulopediya yotchedwa Collier Books, 1970, tsa. 224, n. 23). Hilda Graef anavomereza, kuti, “Zimakhala ngati Mary ankatchedwa Hava popanda akudziwa zambiri” (Mary: A History of Chiphunzitso ndi Kudzipereka, vol. 1, New York: Sheed ndi Ward, 1963, tsa. 38).
  9. Mosiyana ndi kuwoloka nkhani, amene amati Atumwi umboni thupi Mariya anakhala kusamutsidwa kumwamba, pali mwambo kuti anamwalira pa January 18 (Tobi 21), koma kuti manda ake chopanda sanathe kulipeza mpaka 206 Patapita masiku pa August 15 (Mesore 16) (onani Graef, Mary, vol. 1, tsa. 134, n. 1; woyambitsa yofotokozedwapo Ufumu Capelle, Manyuzipepala Theological Lovanienses 3, 1926, tsa. 38; M r Mukhoza. James, Owonjezera New Testament, 1924, mas. 194-201).
  10. Phwando la kubadwa kwa Yesu (i.e., Khirisimasi) unakhazikitsidwa m'ma wachinayi, mu ulamuliro wa Constantine. Phwando la Ascension ndi unakhazikitsidwa m'zaka wachisanu, popeza poyamba kuphatikiza phwando la Pentekoste.
  11. Mwa njira iyi, Mpingo akufanana mayi amene amaletsa ana ake kuti penyani inayake pa TV mpaka iye ndi mwayi penyani bwanji ndi kuweruza nkhani zake azidzisamalira. Mpingo wakhala adasokera pa ngozi pa nkhani kuzindikira chikhulupiriro ndi makhalidwe. Taonani kuti, posachedwapa, Oyera Teresa wa Avila (D. 1582) ndi John wa Cross (D. 1591), tsopano ulemu monga madokotala a Mpingo, ndi mafunso ndi kusaka pa kukayikitsa mpatuko. Mofananamo, nkhaniyo wa Saint Faustina Kowalska (D. 1938), Mulungu Mercy mu Moyo Wanga, anali pa nthawi imodzi adaulamba heterodox ndi azamulungu Church, koma patapita wabweza chilolezo pansi Papa Yohane Paulo Wamkulu. mavumbulutso Faustina opezeka mu zolemba za, Pamenepo, zachititsa kuti mwambo wa phwando la Mercy Divine, tsopano konsekonse yokondwerera Mpingo.