Kodi Papa salakwa?

Image of Saint Peter by Giovanni BelliniAkatolika amakhulupirira kuti papa ali ndithu osalephera, koma pankhani ya chikhulupiriro, kokha pamene anayi zinthu zenizeni kwambiri zimapezeka, koma chifukwa iye motsogozedwa ndi Mzimu Woyera.

Papa ndi munthu, ndipo monga munthu wina aliyense, papa ali wochimwa wagwa. Ndipo komabe, monga wolowa mwachindunji Saint Peter, Iye motsogozedwa ndi Mzimu Woyera kuti asalakwitse pankhani ya chiphunzitso Church. kwa ena, papa zingaoneke kukhazikitsa chotchinga Akatolika kumvetsa Lemba, kapena mwina ngakhale ngati mtundu wa wankhanza wauzimu, kuwauza kuti Akatolika zimene ayenera kukhulupilira. anamvetsa bwino, Komabe, papa ndi mphatso yopambana imene Yesu anapereka ku mpingo wake kuti iye akakhala ku nkhosa zosochera mu kutanthauzira zonama za Lemba, ndi kum'thandiza kukula mu chiyanjano chakuya ndi Iye.

Pali amphamvu umboni wazotsatira kuthandiza zimene Akatolika amakhulupirira za papa. Tiyeni ndikuona …

Anamanga ndi kumasura

Mwina zofunika kwambiri Malemba ya mndime kuzindikira chifukwa ulamuliro wa Peter ndipo papa kudalirika ndi Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu 16:17-19. Mndimeyi, monga momwe tidzaonera, Peter alandira ulamuliro wapadera chiphunzitso kuchokera kwa Yesu. Kuti zikusonyeza, Yesu anafunsa khumi Atumwi amene anthu mukukhulupirira kuti Iye ndi. Iwo kubwezera mndandanda wa mayankho pachithunzichi. Ambuye wathu ndiye akuwafunsa, "Kodi inu munena kuti ndine?" Panthawi ino, Mtumwi Simon amalumphira patsogolo kulankhula m'malo mwa khumi ndi awiriwo, kupereka yankho lolondola: "Ndinu Khristu, Mwana wa Mulungu wamoyo. "Poyankha,, Yesu Yankho:

17 “Wodalitsika ndinu, Simoni Bar-Yona! Pakuti thupi ndi mwazi-sizinaulilire izi kuti inu, koma Atate wanga amene ali kumwamba.

18 Ndipo ine ndikukuuzani inu, ndinu Peter, ndipo pa thanthwe ili ndidzakhazikitsa mpingo wanga, ndipo mphamvu za gehena sadzaulaka uwo.

19 Ndidzakupatsa iwe mafungulo a Ufumu wa Kumwamba, ndi chirichonse chimene iwe uchimanga pa dziko lapansi chidzakhala chomangidwa Kumwamba, ndipo zili zonse mukazimasula pa dziko lapansi chidzakhala chomasulidwa Kumwamba.”

Choyamba, mu vesi 17, Ambuye akudalitsa Peter, otsimikiza chidziwitso chake nkhani si a yodziŵiratu zinthu pasadakhale anthu, koma a vumbulutso la Mulungu.

Chachiwiri, mu vesi 18, Iye amapereka Simon dzina lake latsopano, Peter, kukwaniritsa mawu ake kwa iye kuchokera Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane 1:42. Ndipo Yesu akulonjeza kuti adzamanga Mpingo Wake pa iye.

Chachitatu, mu vesi 19, Yesu amapereka Peter mphatso ya makiyi a ufumu wa kumwamba ndi ulamuliro kum'manga ndi kumasura (m'chilankhulo zolemba za arabi zimenezi zikutanthauza kuti aletsa ndi choyendetsera), anamutsimikizira kuti zochita wake wapadziko lapansi zidzakwezedwa kumwamba. Apa ndi crux cha nkhaniyi! zinthu zimene Peter limaphunzitsa pa dziko lapansi zidzakwezedwa monga choonadi ndi Mulungu kumwamba. N'zoonekeratu, chifukwa iye ali wopanda ungwiro ndi wochimwa, Peter ayenera kupatsidwa chisomo chapadera kwa kumulepheretsa opereka malamulo amene sagwirizana ndi chifuniro cha Mulungu. chisomo yapadera imeneyi ndi zimene Akatolika amachitcha papa kudalirika. popanda, Mulungu adzakhala mu malo kokhala kutsimikiza ziphunzitso zabodza monga zenizeni zomwe, kumene, kuti sizilephereka monga Iye ali Choonadi Okha (onani John 14:6). Kuika njira ina, ngati kuli kotheka kuti mtsogoleri padziko lapansi Mpingo kupanga chiphunzitso olakwika kumanga pa wokhulupirika, ndiye mpingo ulibe bata Mulungu kuti Yesu anamutsimikizira pamene Iye analonjeza zipata za hade sadzaulaka ake (Matt. 16:18).1

Mafungulo a Ufumu wa Kumwamba

Ikuimira makiyi abwera ku mwambo wakale ndi zimene mfumu yoikidwa achifumu kapitawo woyang'anira wake wa ufumu kulibe ndipo anam'patsa mafungulo zipata zake.

mu M'buku la Mneneri Yesaya, Ambuye anawalankhula mwaukali mdindo wa mfumu, Sebina, kuti, "Ine ndidzakhala kupisa inu ku ofesi yanu, ndipo inu adzaponyedwa ochokera wanu. ... Ndipo ndidzaika pa [m'malo wanu] paphewa fungulo la nyumba ya Davide; iye adzatsegula, ndipo palibe wina adzatseka; ndipo iye adzatseka, ndipo palibe wina adzatsegula " (22:19, 22; motsindika anawonjezera).2

Yesu ndi Mfumu ya mafumu, "Woyera, Woonayo, amene ali nacho chifungulo cha Davide, amene atsegula ndipo palibe wina adzatseka, amene anatseka ndipo palibe wina atsegula " (Chivumbulutso 3:7; wonaninso 1:18 ndi Job 12:14). mu Matthew 16:19, Khristu Mfumu chimaika Peter kukhala kapitawo wake kuti ayang'anire Mpingo, ufumu wake pa dziko lapansi, kulibe. Pakutero, Ambuye sayenera kusiya ulamuliro wake wapamwamba, uliwonse kuposa mafumu akale akusonyezabe anagwera adindo awo.

Chiphunzitso salakwa Peter, amene zidzakhalire mu kuvomereza kwake pa Kayisareya wa Filipi (Matt. 16), zimaoneka pa wotchuka Council a Yerusalemu, limene Atumwi kukumana ndi kusankha kaya kutsatira Chilamulo cha Mose ndi chofunika kuti tipulumuke.

Nkhani Saint Luka, mu Machitidwe a Atumwi, zosonyeza Mzimu Woyera kudzera mwa Mpingo Magisterium (kapena "kuphunzitsa ofesi")kutanthauza, kudzera msonkhano wa Atumwi (kapena mabishopu) mwa Peter (papa)-kuti momveka kuthetsa mkangano izi ziphunzitso (15:28). mwachindunji, ndi Peter amene chimakhazikitsa mtsutsano; ndi mawu ake chimene chimabweretsa kutsutsana kwa pafupi (15:7). Ngakhale Saint James, ngati Bishop wa Yerusalemu, amapatsidwa ulemu wa moderating bungwe, ndi Peter amene akulankhula msonkhano pa chiphunzitso ndi James 'kutseka ndemanga kutsimikizira malangizo ake.

Fresco of the Popes by Sandro Botticelli

Kodi kudalirika Gwirani?

chiphunzitso pa kudalirika kwa Papa kaŵirikaŵiri molakwa. Kuti mawu ayenerere osalephera, i ena ayenera kukwaniritsa. Papa Ayenela:

  1. Mukufuna kulankhula ngati m'busa wa mpingo Universal. Mosiyana, alankhula zambiri monga wazamulungu payekha kapena bishopu wamba, monga pamene akulankhula amwendamnjira anasonkhana Square Petulo Woyera. Zikatero, kudalirika kwa Papa salowa sewero.
  2. Kutchula pa nkhani ya chikhulupiriro ndi makhalidwe. Ziganizo pa nkhani ina iliyonse (monga ndale kapena sayansi) sakuyenerera.
  3. Akufuna kuti adzayankha chisankho osasinthika kuti adzakhala amamanga pa okhulupirika. Kukhazikitsidwa kwa kusala, loletsa bukhu, kapena anadzudzula wa gulu linalake kapena munthu, zitsanzo zonse za zochita chabe chilango, amene ali kusintha ndi, Choncho, si osalephera.
  4. Ayenera kulankhula ndi chilolezo zonse kwa chifuniro. Ananena pansi duress sitikanawerengera. Cholinga chake kulankhula mosalephera ayenera kukhala bwino, kaya mwa Papa mwachindunji kapena mwa zinthu ozungulira katundu.

Pamene mawu papa kukumana chimodzi kapena zingapo zofunika izi, m'pofunika kuti zonse zofunika kuti tichite kuti izo kuonedwa kuti osalephera.

Izo Kuphunzitsa, osati Kuchititsa!

Nthawi molakwa kuti Papa walakwitsa kutsutsa kudalirika wake, koma yosalephera ali kuchita ndi chiphunzitso, makhalidwe. Komanso, lamulo la Yesu kumvera intermediaries Ake (onani Luka 10:16 ndi Matthew 18:17) sanapangidwe chimadalira pa okhulupirika (onani Matthew 23:2-3).

Mu Old Testament, Davide anakhalabe Mfumu yovomerezeka Israel ngakhale machimo ake (onani Buku lachiwiri la Samuel, 11:1). mwana wake, mfumu Solomo, akazi mazana asanu ndi akazi achabe mazana atatu, ndipo ngakhale anayamba kulambira mafano, koma nayenso anakhalabe mtsogoleri woikidwa wa anthu osankhidwa a Mulungu kwa zaka forte (onani buku loyamba la Mafumu, 11:3, 5, 7, 33, 42). Komanso, kuganizira khumi Atumwi, amene anali atsogoleri woyamba wa mpingo wa chipangano chatsopano, ndipo handpicked mwa Ambuye Mwiniwake!

  • Mmodzi adampereka Iye kwa ndalama zasiliva makumi atatu;
  • Onse koma wina adzasiyidwa Iye mu ora Lake la chosowa chachikulu;
  • Petro adakana iye anamuzindikira (onani Matthew, 26:20, neri Al.);
  • Ngakhale pambuyo Kuukitsidwa kwa, Thomas anali ndi vuto la chikhulupiriro (onani John 20:24-25);
  • Petulo anasonyeza tsankho (onani Agalatiya 2:11-14); ndi
  • Paulo kuzilandira, "Sindikumvetsa zochita zanga. Pakuti sindichita chimene ndifuna, koma Ine kuchita chinthu chomwecho ine sindikufuna kuchita " (Aroma 7:15).

koma, kuchimwa kwa atsogoleri a mpingo si chopanda pake ulamuliro wawo, kapena mlandu kwa mapapa zimakhudzira luso lawo mosalephera chimatanthauza chiphunzitso. Timaona mu Uthenga Wabwino, Pamenepo, kuti mkulu wa ansembe, Kayafa, anapitiriza mphatso ya uneneri ngakhale kuchimwa kwake (onani John 11:49-52, pansipa "Eks Cathedra ndi Mose").

Mpingo si kuima chifukwa cha kupatulika munthu atsogoleri ake ', koma chifukwa Cha lonjezo Khristu kutumiza Mzimu Woyera kuti amuthandize "m'choonadi chonse" (John 16:13).

Kodi mfundo zotsutsana kudalirika waupapa?

MATEYU 16:23
Pofuna kutsutsa papa kudalirika, otsutsa nthawi zambiri zinkakambidwa pofuna Matthew 16:23 imene Yesu anawakalipira Peter, kuti "Pita kumbuyo kwanga, Satana! Ndinu chopunthwitsa kwa ine; chifukwa simuli mbali ya Mulungu, koma za anthu. "Ambuye kunyozedwa Peter motere chifukwa Mtumwi, akumupempha kuti Yesu kupewa masautso, tingati anafanana Satana amene anayesa Yesu kusiya ntchito Yake (onani Matthew 4:1, neri Al.). kudzudzula Ambuye sikuti kuvulaza kudalirika Petulo, Komabe, kuyambira mawu mtumwi kuphatikiza olakwika chiweruzo payekha ndi sichiphunzitso kakaka.

AGALATIYA 2:11
malemba ena, Anthu ena amakhulupirira imatsutsana kudalirika Petulo, likupezeka mu mutu wachiwiri wa Paulo Woyera Kalata yopita kwa Agalatiya, limene likufotokozanso atasemphana maganizo ndi Peter pa kukana otsiriza a kukhala ndi kudya ndi otembenuzidwa Amitundu (2:11). Komabe, chifukwa kudzudzula Paulo anali kuchita ndi vuto "wochita osati chiphunzitso,"Kudalirika Petro sanali pa nkhani (Tertullian, The Demurrer Against ampatuko 23:10).

Ena molakwika ndimeyi umboni wotsika Peter kwa Paulo. Mfundo yakuti Paulo nkhani zoterozo akaonekere kwa Peter, Komabe, limasonyeza iye anakhulupirira iye analankhula apamwamba. Monga Saint Augustine adaonetsetsa mosamala, "Peter kumanzere kwa anthu amene anabwera pambuyo chitsanzo, kuti, ngati nthawi iliyonse posiya njira yoyenera, sayenera ndikuganiza pansi iwo kulandira uphungu kwa anthu amene juniors awo " (Kalata Jerome 82:22; wonaninso Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica 2:33:4).

apapa OIPA
Ngakhale fallacy amalimbikira mabwalo ena ambiri apapa ali ochimwa kwambiri, choonadi kwambiri wa oloŵa Peter akhala amuna a khalidwe lawo labwino kwambiri. Ofufuza anapeza kuti amapindula, koma, kuunikila chiwerewere kwa mapapa angapo pa kupatulika kwa ambiri.

Akatolika konse anakana apapa agwa anthu akufunikira chipulumutso monga wina aliyense. Kodi Akatolika amayesetsa, Komabe,-ndipo zimene mbiri zimbalangondo kunja ndi kuti palibe papa konse mwalamulo ankaphunzitsa zolakwika pa chikhulupiriro ndi makhalidwe, kapena zosemphana ndi chisankho motsimikiza za kuloŵedwa kapena bungwe.

Kukhulupirika chiphunzitso cha papa akhala ndi aliyense ndi milandu yonse adani ndatambasula motsutsa izo. onsewa, pamene anamasulidwa ku chinyengo odana Catholic ndipo anatengedwa mu mbiri ndi zamulungu nkhani yake, timasonyeza kukhulupirika zozizwitsa za chiphunzitso Catholic, ngakhale chirengedwe chonse moti munthu atsogoleri a mpingo.3

Ex Cathedra ndipo Mose

Pamene Papa amalankhula mosalephera, iye ndi kulankhula wakale cathedra, amene ali Latin kuti "kuchokera mpando." Lingaliro la mpando yaikulu ya ulamuliro zimadza kuchokera Old Testament, ndipo Mose anakhala chiweruzo cha anthu (onani Eksodo 18:13).

ulamuliro wa Mose, Ifenso, anali perpetuated kupyola mzera wa oloŵa (onani Deuteronomo, 17:8-9; 34:9). Pamenepo, mpando wa Mose anakhalabe yogwira mpaka nthawi ya Khristu, monga Yesu mwini anaulula, kuti, "Alembi ndi Afarisi akhala pa mpando wa Mose; choncho amachita ndi kusunga chirichonse chimene iwo kukuuzani, koma chimene achita; pakuti amalalika, koma sitichita " (onani Matthew 23:1-3).

mu Uthenga wa Yohane Woyera tikuona bungwe la ansembe akulu ndi Afarisi convening pansi pa ulamuliro wa wansembe wamkulu Kayafa (11:49). Pa msonkhanopo, Kayafa akunena ulosi, "Kuli koyenera kwa inu kuti munthu m'modzi afere anthu, ndi kuti mtundu wonse asatayike " (11:50). Pamene John zolemba, Kayafa "sananene izi mwini wake, koma (chifukwa chakuti) pokhala mkulu wa ansembe chaka chimenecho " (11:51).

Motero, Mulungu anapitiriza kulankhula kudzera kuchiyang'anira Mose (kaya ndi olungama kapena kuyipa). Petulo anagwira ntchito mofanana mu Chipangano Chatsopano, ankaimira Khristu padziko lapansi kapena wolowa mmalo mwa amene Mulungu amalankhula kwa anthu.

Chotero, ambiri mabuku oyambirira papa amanena za Mose mwambo wa chimodzi, mpando odalirika. Mwachitsanzo, ndi mpukutu wa Muratori, zinalembedwa Rome padziko A.D. 170, states, "Ndithu posachedwapa mu nthawi yathu, ... Bishop Pius, anakhala pa mpando wa mpingo wa mzinda wa Rome. "

Mofananamo, Saint Cyprian, ndi Bishop wa Carthage, kulemba 251, anatchula mpandowu ulamuliro (onani Kalata Antonianus 55:8), ndipo nthawizina Chaka 325, ndi ndakatulo anonymous cha Gau analengeza, "Mu mpando izi iyeyo adakhala, Peter, Mu Rome amphamvu, analamula Linus, woyamba kusankhidwa, pansi " (Zoyerekeza-Tertullian, Ndakatulo Kulanga Marcionites 3:276-277).

Saint Macarius la Egypt (D. monga. 390) analemba: "Pakuti Mose akale ndi Aroni, pamene ansembe ili linali lawo, zowawa zambiri; ndi Kayafa, pamene iye anali mpando awo, kuzunzidwa ndi oweruzidwa Ambuye. ... Kenako Mose m'malo ndi Peter, amene anachita kuti manja ake atsopano Mpingo wa Khristu, ndi ansembe woona " (Homily 26).

Kugwirizana Mumpingo

The charism wa mosalephera mu liwulo chiphunzitso ndi malangizo kwa ntchito Papa kukhala zooneka chizindikiro ndi gwero la umodzi wachikristu.

Udindo wa Papa potipatsa umodzi ziphunzitso kwa okhulupirira onse anali Yesu anasonyeza pa Mgonero Womaliza pamene Iye adalonga kuna Peturo, "Simon, Simon, taonani, Satana akufuna anthu inu, kuti akupeteni ngati tirigu, koma ndinakupempherera iwe kuti chikhulupiriro chako chingazime; ndipo iwe pamene watembenuka kachiwiri, kulimbikitsa abale anu " (Luka 22:31-32).

Petulo anapatsidwa udindo wa kutsimikizira chikhulupiriro cha ena. Kuti athe kuchita izi, Yesu analonjeza kuti adzapereka pa iye chikhulupiriro chimene kulephera, ndiko, mphatso yosalephera. Choncho ndi kuti anthu otsalirawo womvera Petrine ulamuliro ndi zowona yodziwira ndi ogwirizana chiphunzitso ndi mpingo wonse ndipo pamapeto pake ndi Khristu, Mutu wa Mpingo. Tikawonetsetsa, amene alibe okha ku ulamuliro ngati izi monga Akatolika chochita, matchalitchi a Eastern Orthodox, ndi Chiprotestanti madera-zowawa magawano ndi ndewu kupitirirabe.4

Samalira Nkhosa Zanga

Yesu pomuchitira ake a Peter monga m'busa Wake imfa yoopsa m'mphepete mwa Nyanja ya Galileya pambuyo pa kuuka kwa akufa. Apo, Yesu anamufunsa kuti mumtsimikizire ameneyo chikondi chake kwa Iye katatu, lolingana anadzikaniza yapita Petulo (onani Matthew 26:34, neri Al.).

Pambuyo aliyense ati chikondi, Yesu anamulamulira kuphunzitsa ndi kusamalira nkhosa zake, kuti, "Dyetsa ana a nkhosa anga. ... Samalira nkhosa zanga. ... Dyetsa nkhosa zanga " (John 21:15, 16, 17). Ambuye sanali kusiya umwini wa nkhosa, Iye anapitiriza kuwatcha Zake zomwe ali sanawakhulupirire iwo Peter.5 Kuti Papa kukwaniritsa udindo wa imfa yoopsa mbusa, kuonetsetsa nkhosa Yesu anadyetsa chidzalo cha choonadi, m'pofunika kuti iye kutetezedwa ku zolakwa chiphunzitso. Ndipo kotero iye wakhala pafupifupi ziwiri zaka; ndipo kotero adzakhala mpaka kubweranso kwa Ambuye.

  1. Nzowona kuti ulamuliro kum'manga ndi lotayirira komanso anapatsidwa kwa Atumwi monga gulu Matthew 18:18, koma mphamvu ya mafungulo unapatsidwa kwa Peter yekha. Monga oloŵa mmalo Atumwi, mabishopu achikatolika ndi mphamvu limodzi kutenga zochita dogmatically kumanga, mpaka pamene iwo asonkhana mu bungwe la ecumenical (bungwe loimira lonse, Mpingo wa konsekonse) ndi kuchita mgonero ndi Bishop wa Rome, olowa m'malo a Petulo.
  2. Kuti mozama ofesi Petulo lemba la Yesaya 22, onani Stephen K. Ray, Pa thanthwe ili (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999), tsa. 265.
  3. Kuti mokwanira ndi udindo anathetsera nkhani zosiyanasiyana maganizo m'mbiri ya papa kuona Warren Carroll, A History Achikristu, vols. 1-5 (Front Royal, Virginia: Achikristu Press, 1985); komanso Patrick Madrid, papa Zabodza (San Diego: tchalitchi Press, 1999).
  4. The magawano pakati pa East Orthodox Churches amamuchititsa chikhalidwe m'chilengedwe, koma kugawikana kwa Akatolika chochita ndipo mkati Chiprotestanti ambiri amapezeka pamodzi mizere ziphunzitso. Akhoza kukhala anati kwa Mipingo East, amene anakhalabe kwambiri kapena zochepa ungwiro wogwirizana ndi Rome kuyambira magawano leveni m'zaka, Chigawo wakhala zolimbitsa poyerekezera ndi chiphunzitso cholamitsa ali, kwakukulukulu, akhala anapitiriza. pakuti Chiprotestanti, mbali inayi, umene wathunthu detachment ku ulamuliro Roma wakhala tenet zoyambirira, Chigawo wakhala ponseponse, chifukwa mu makumi-wa-zikwi kupikisana zipembedzo.
  5. Onani Scott Butler, Norman Dahlgren, ndi Rev. Bambo. David Hess, Yesu, Peter ndi Chinsinsi (Santa Barbara, California: Queenship Yofalitsa Company, 1996), tsa. 59; cf. Matt. 9:36-38.