Maxaa SIM kala duwan?

Image of a painting of the Transfiguration of Christ by Paolo Veronese

Sida iska cad, kutaabka kala duwan ay sabab u tahay turjumaadaha, laakiin waxaa jira farqi dheeraad ah oo aasaasi ah, aad, iyo in ay ku lug leedahay Halabuurka ee Kitaabka Quduuska ah, gaar ahaan buugaagta aqbalay in Axdiga Hore.

Guud ahaan, Catholics iyo Masiixiyiinta kale u muuqdaan in ay ku heshiiyaan buugaagta in ka mid ah Axdiga Cusub, laakiin waxay ka doodista siidaayay toddoba buugaagta ee Old Testament in Catholics waxaa ka mid ah.

buugaagta Kuwani, loo yaqaan deuterocanonical (ama "xeerkoodu labaad") buugaagta sababtoo ah xaaladooda waxaa isku haysto muddo. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, laga bilaabo Golaha Rome ee 382 CD, taas oo ka amar ee Pope Saint Damasus waxaan isugu, Church Catholic ayaa aqbalay ansax iyo qalmo in Buugaagtan, halka beelaha kale ee Christian leeyihiin oo aan samayn.

buugaagta waa:

The buugaagta deuterocanonical ku jira Iskanderiya Canon caanka ah, version Giriigga ah Old Testament soo saaray oo u dhexeeya 250 iyo 100 B.C. xeerkoodu waxaa la aasaasay by toddobaatan culimmo Yuhuuda codsi ka yimid Masar oo Fircoon Blotemigii II Philadelphus, kuwaas oo doonay inay leeyihiin ururinta caadi ah oo Yuhuudda ee Xurmada Books tarjumay Giriigga ah ee ka mid noqoshada ee Library ee Alexandria. xeerkoodu ayaa soo saaray toddobaatan culimmadii ayaa in ay sharaf ugu iman in loo yaqaan Septuagint ka dib septuagintus, erayga Laatiin for "toddobaatan."

Septuagint waxaa loo isticmaalaa in hore Palestine oo waxaa xitaa ka jeeclaadeen by Eebow iyo kuwa isaga raacaa. Dhab ahaan, intooda badani sheegyada Old Testament muuqda in Axdiga Cusub waxa ay ka soo Septuagint.

Dhaleeceyn ku tilmaamay, Si kastaba ha ahaatee, in buugaagta deuterocanonical aan la soo xigtay Axdiga Cusub, laakiin ka dibna mar kale mana jira dhowr ka mid ah buugaagta oo aan Catholics aqbalo, sida Garsoorayaasha, Kitaabka First of TAARIIKHDII, Nexemyaah, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, BAROORASHADII, Cobadyaah, iyo kuwa kale. Intaas waxaa sii dheer, xataa haddii Axdiga Cusub uusan si toos ah uma qaadan buugaagta deuterocanonical, waxa middani iyaga ka jira marinnada kala duwan (barbardhigaan gaar ahaan Paul ee Warqad ku Cibraaniyada 11:35 la The Kitaabka Labaad ee Maccabees 7:29; sidoo kale Matthew 27:43 la Wisdom 2:17-18; Matthew 6:14-15 la Sirach 28:2; Matthew 7:12 la Tobit 4:15; iyo Acts Rasuulladu 10:26 la Wisdom 7:1).

Image of a painting of the Apotheosis of Christ by Gerald DavidMadaxdii hore ee Protestant diiday Septuagint, Old Testament Catholic, ay guushu ku xeerkoodu uu soo saaray in Palestine, oo Isaguna buugaagta deuterocanonical. xeerkoodu waxaa la sameeyey by koox ka mid ah culimadoodii tuulada of Jamniya dhamaadkii CD ugu horeysay ee qarnigii, saddex boqol iyo laba sano ka dib in ka badan Septuagint.

Waxa ay u muuqataa in aasaasayaasha Protestant helay faa'iido in ay diidaan Septuagint sababtoo ah marinnada in deuterocanonicals ah oo taageero waxbaridda Catholic. Gaar ahaan, waxay diidmo ka qaaday in ay Kitaabka Labaad ee Maccabees 12:45-46, taas oo muujinaysa in Yuhuuddii hore u baryay kuwii dhintay.

cajiib, Martin Luther qaaday talaabo dheeraad ah ee xukumeen haystaa sacab muggiis oo buugaag New Testament-ku salaysan caqiido iyo sidoo. Wuxuu quudhsadeen Letter of James, tusaale ahaan, ay cilmiga "in nin shuqullo xaq ku noqday oo aan lagu caddayn rumaysadka oo keliya" (2:24). Marka lagu daro James, oo wuxuu u bixiyey "warqaddii ah ee kale caws buu u,"Luther ayaa sidoo kale diiday Letter labaad ee Peter, ka Labaad iyo Waraaqaha saddexaad ee John, Saint Paul ee Warqad ku Cibraaniyada, iyo Kitaabka Muujintii.

Church Catholic ayaa qiray amar Kitaabka Quduuska ah ee, in kastoo uusan ka fiirsan sida kaliya xujo, sida Luther sameeyey.

maamuustaan ​​The Church ee Kitaabka Quduuska ah taariikh ahaan waa la dafiri karin.

Ka dib markii la aasaaso Canon ah, Pope Damasus wakiishay Saint Jerome (d. 420), Aqoonyahan ugu weyn ee Kitaabka Qudduuska ah maalintii uu dhashay oo laga yaabaa in waqtiga oo dhan, inuu turjumo Bible galay Latin si loo adduunka akhriyi kari waayeen.1

Kitaabka waxaa lagu dhawray iyada oo qarniyadii dhexe by suufiyadoodii Catholic, yaa u soo saari by gacanta hal warqad waqti. Qaybaha Kitaabka Quduuska ah ayaa marka hore loo tarjumay Ingiriisi by Saint Bede ayo ah, wadaad Catholic, qarnigii siddeedaad.

The buugaagta Kitaabka Qudduuska ah ayaa la qaybsan cutubyada in 1207 by Stephen Langton, Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury. Kitaabku waxa uu marka hore la daabacay ayaa lagu soo saaray ku dhawaad 1452 by Johann Gutenberg, hindisa ku Catholic of nooca dhaqaajin karo. Gutenberg ee Bible ka mid ah buugaagta deuterocanonical siduu yeelay asalka Idman ama King James Version in 1611.

Kitaabka waxaa lagu turjumay by Church Catholic galay Jarmal iyo dad badan oo ku qoran luqado kale iyo sidoo kale waqtiga Luther ka hor. Dhab ahaan, Kevin Orlin Johnson ayaa xusay in uu buugga, Maxaad Do Catholics Ma Taasi?

"Qoraalka ugu da'da weyn Jarmalka ee nooc kasta waa turjumaad Kitaabka Quduuska ah lagu sameeyey 381 by wadaad la odhan jiray Ulfilas; wuxuu ku tarjumay Gothic, oo waxa Jarmal dib ahayd. badanaa Waxaad maqli in Martin Luther wuxuu ahaa kii ugu horeeyay ee ka soo guranayaan Church ee xoreeyaan Kitaabka Quduuska ah, markaasuu siin doonaa dad Kitaabka-ka gaajeeysan, laakiin taasi waa iska cad Cawaysimina. Tan iyo Ulfilas, ay jiraan lahaa in ka badan kun sano ee Isla af Jarmal-gacmeedka SIM, iyo ugu yaraan kow iyo labaatan daabacay koob Jarmal (tiraa Cardinal Gibbon ee) ka hor inta Luther. " (Maxaad Do Catholics Ma Taasi?, Ballantine Books, 1995, p. 24, n.)

Image of a painting of the Transfiguration of Christ by Paolo VeroneseSida Masiixiyiinta oo dhan, Catholics Talo Saaro Ruuxa Quduuska ah hanuun fasiraadda Kitaabka; garashada gaar ah, In kastoo, in Ruuxa ka shaqeeya iyada oo gaariga of Church (arki John 14:26 iyo 16:13). Ruuxa hanuuniyo Magisterium Church ee ku isku hallayn karo Kitaabka turjumidda, sida uu ku hogaamiyay qorayaasha muqadas infallibly u curinta.

Qaar badan oo ka non-Catholics u muuqdaan in ay u arkaan fikirka maamulka Church ee sida isagoo ah ee la amar Ilaah, laakiin Masiix ayaa xaqiijiyay Kaniisadda, "Oo kii maqlaana aad i maqla, oo kii idin diidaana, waa i diidaa,, oo kii diidaana waa i diidaa, kan i soo diray " (Luke 10:16). Sidaas, awoodda Ilaah oo aan la kala saari karaan awoodda uu Church. Masiix yahay isha ay ka awood Church iyo sida amarkan u yimaadda isagoo ka waa in la aqoonsado by kuwa isaga raacaa oo dhan oon Adeecno.

Inkastoo dad badan oo sheegan in ay raacaan amarka Kitaabka Quduuska ah, runta ah arrinta waa, waayo, qaar badan waxa Kitaabka Quduuska ah ayaa sheegay in ku xiran tahay fasiraadda gaarka ah ee qofka.

Saint Peter digay, Si kastaba ha ahaatee, "In wixii nebiyadii ma Qorniinku waa arrin ka mid ah tafsiira, maxaa yeelay, wax sii sheegidda weligood kuma ay iman maayad Aadanaha, laakiin nin u dhaqaaqay by Ruuxa Quduuska ah xagga Ilaah kaga hadlay " (arag Letter labaad 1:20-21; xooga ku daray). Peter ayaa sidoo kale sheegay, in tixraacayo warqadaha Bawlos, in "Waxaa jira waxyaabo qaar ka mid ah iyaga oo ku adag tahay in ay fahmaan, oo maroojin jaahiliinta iyo kuwaan adkayn ayaa ay u halligmaan, sida ay sameeyaan Qorniinka kaleba. Haddaba waa inaad, gacaliyayaalow, idinkoo taas hore, isjira, yaan aad loo kaxaystay qaladka dadka sharcilaawayaasha, iyo lumiso xasiloonida u gaar ah " (sidoo kale in Butros Letter labaad 3:16-17).

Sababtaa awgeed, Catholics waa shukriya ku dhowaad 2,000-sano, dhaqan joogto ah fasiraadda iyo waxgarasho.

  1. "Iyadoo Roman Empire ee ururuada in Europe, akhriska ee Qorniinka in carrabka Latin, taas oo ahayd luqada caalamiga ah ee boqortooyadiisa ka, meel walba ka adkaaday,"Ayuu Reverend Charles Buck, a non-Catholic, waxa uu qiray ("Bible" ee fiqi Dictionary; Patrick F. O'Hare, The Xaqiiqada About Luther, rev. ed., Rockford, Illinois: Tan Books iyo Publishers, Inc., 1987, p. 182). Pope Damasus ayaa Qorniinka turjumay Latin, luqada caalamiga ah ee maalintii uu, waayo, isku sabab Nasaarada casriga ah–nala mid ah–ayaa sameeyey Qorniinka heli karaa internet-ka: si dad badan intii suurto gal ah laga yaabaa in ay helaan iyaga.