Malo of Mary

Image of Death of Virgin ah by Duccio di Buoninsegna

Dhimashada Virgin ah by Duccio di Buoninsegna

Male ah waa aaminsan in Mary, at gabagabeeyo iyada nolosha dunida, waxaa jidhka iyo nafta loo qaaday samada. Waxaa la maldahan ee aayado kala duwan ee Kitaabka, malaha baaskeeda lahaa in MUUJINTII 12, oo la rumeysan yahay by Nasaarada hore, sida ka muuqata ka liturgies qadiimiga ah iyo qoraallada. Perhaps the greatest historical proof of the Assumption, In kastoo, waa xaqiiqda ah in ma shakhsiga ama bulshada ayaa weligood sheegtay inay hantiyaan jirka Mary ee.1 Mid ka mid noqon karaan qaar lahaa jirka ah Mary, by fog ugu sarraysiiyey Southampton, ku hadhay dhulka, kuwa raacsan Masiixa ay noqon lahaayeen kuwa ogyahay waxaa ka mid ah.

Waxaa dhici in ay laba aaminsan kala duwan oo ku saabsan meesha of Mary ee ku dhaco: mid ka mid ah tilmaanta Yeruusaalem; kale ee Efesos. Of labada, xeerkii hore waa ka weyn oo ka wanaagsan taaban. Waxa xiiso leh oo ku filan, madhan ah, xabaashii-qarnigii koowaad la helay inta lagu guda jiro excavations goobta iyada maraayay Yeruusaalem xaafaddeeda 1972 (arki Bellarmino Bagatti, Michael Piccirillo, iyo Albert Prodomo, O.F.M., Daahfurtay New at Qabriga Mary Virgin ee Getsemane, Yeruusaalem: Franciscan Daabacaadda Press, 1975). Culimada qaarkood ay shakiyaan siidaayay oo xabaashii tan ma waxaa loo gudbiyaa by Aabbayaashii hore ee deganaa Falastiin, sida Cyril Yeruusaalem (d. 386), Epiphanius (d. 403), iyo Jerome (d. 420). Laakiin, sida archeologist Bellarmino Bagatti tilmaamay, xabaashii Mary ayaa guud ahaan fogaadaa by hore Nasaarada asal ahaan aan Yuhuudda ahayn sababtoo ah waxa ay ku saabsan hantida awowyaasha-Nasaarada istaagay, kuwaas oo “ayaa loo arkaa schismatics haddii aan kufaar” (ibid., p. 15). Isla sababtaas, goobaha kale ee quduuska ah, sida Room Sare, ma u muuqdaan in qoraallada hore midkood (ibid.). Waa in la xusuusnaado sidoo in ciidamada General Roman ee Titus Yeruusaalem tirray sannaddiisii 70, qarinta meelaha xurmada leh Yuhuudda iyo Masiixiyaddu burburka hooseba. In 135, Hadrian Emperor mar kale magaalada barbareeyay iyadoo ujeedada express ee dhismaha macbudyo jaahilka ugu sareysa Guryohoodii goobaha quduuska ah. kaalinta ee ku dhaco oo kale meelaha xurmada Mary ee ku hadhay lumay ilaa qarnigii afraad ugu yaraan marka Constantine Emperor Weyn tartiib bilaabay inuu soo celiyo goobaha quduuska Masiixiyada ee, laga bilaabo Sepulchre Quduuska ah in 336.] Male ah waxay bixisaa tusaale xer ah Masiixa socda isaga ka dib wakhtiga sarakicidda jirka ah, pointing to the reality for which all Christians hope. Ugu dambayntii, ma dalbanaayo in iyada quduusnimada, Oo weliba, laakiin in meeshii quduuska ahayd ee Ciise, on account oo iyadu heshay gacmaynayso gaar ah.

Inkasta oo ay mar walba la rumaysan yahay by Masiixiyiinta, Saadaasha ah waxaa si rasmi ah shaaca ka qaaday uu aamino a of Church Catholic ah by Pope Pius XII ee 1950. Waxa hubaal ah mid ka mid arki kartaa xigmad jacaylka Ilaah ee adkaynaya sarakicidda jirka Mary ee dunida ah badhtamaha qarnigii ah in goob joog cadaalad badan oo qabrigiisa ka dhanka ah sharafta qofka aadanaha. Waqtiga dhawaaqidda uu aamino ee, dunidana waxaa laga soo baxaya ka jahli xerooyinka dhimasho Nazi iyo degdeg u dhowaanin dilka gobolka-ilaaliyo ee ilmaha aan weli dhalan ee. abtirsan The naag iyada iyo xirfad sare oo hooyada ayaa si gaar ah loo weeraray by bulshada casriga ah, taas ayaa la gardaraysto diiradda quruxdeeda bannaanka dul oo waxay dooneen inay weligood iyada loo yareeyo in shay ee damaca. Marka loo fiirsho in ay kuwan wacdiyo ah dhaqanka dhimashada, Mary’s Assumption declares the dignity of womanhood and of the human body, ee qofka aadanaha, hab awood leh.

Loosoo of Virgin ah by Albrecht roonaadaan

Loosoo of Virgin ah by Albrecht roonaadaan

uu aamino ee male ah ku dul dul awood u Church ee in ay ku quudiyaan oo ido ah Masiixa (cf. John 21:15-17; Luke 10:16) iyo ballanka Our Badbaadiyeheenna ah ee ah in uu Church runta ku bari doonaa (cf. John 14:26; 16:13; Matt. 16:18-19; 1 Tim. 3:15). amar Tani isku hallayn karo ayaa had iyo jeer lagu kalsoon tahay in faaliyaan cilmiga runta ah marka khilaaf ayaa ka dhex aamin ayaa Ciise sara kacay. Waxaan arrintan u aragno in yeedhidda Golaha Yeruusaalem (Acts 15); in Paul ayaa doonidiina Rasuullada’ ansixinta uu sanado badan ku wacdiyaya ka dib markii uu qaab beddelidda, (Gal. 2:1-2); iyo in falalka ka mid ah Golayaasha Ecumenical dambe, oo wuxuu naadiyey ilaahnimadiisa, si uu Masiix ku 325, ilaahnimadiisa ah Ruuxa Quduuska ah in 381, iyo hooyooyinka rabaani ah in Mary ee 431.

fiqi, Male ah ula xiriira wallacid nadiifsan, taas oo dhigayaa in Mary, nimco gaar ah oo xagga Ilaah ka, waxaa u tudhay ka Xumaan dembiga asalka ah laga bilaabo waqtiga ugu horeeya ee iyada jiritaanka. Her freedom from sin is implicit in God’s promise upon the Fall of Man to place enmity between the devil and the Mother of the Redeemer (Gen. 3:15). Going to jeer rususha dib, Church ayaa qadarin Mary sida Xaawa Cusub, helpmate aamin of Adam Cusub. Just sida Xaawa ugu horeysay rumaysteen been Shaydaanka, malaa'ig dhacay, and by rejecting God’s plan brought sin and death into the world; so the New Eve believed the truths of Gabriel, Mikaa'iil oo ah, and by cooperating with God’s plan brought salvation and life into the world. In Mary fekereyso sidii Eve Cusub, Oo weliba, waxaan kuula nimid in la ogaado in kulug leennahay madaxfurasho, Ilaah hab lama filaan ah suugaan beddeli dhacdooyinkii naga dayrta. Originally, tusaale ahaan, Adam hore u yimid; iyo Xaawo, waxaa la sameeyay jidhkiisa ka. In furashada, Mary, New Eve ah, yimid horeysay; oo Masiix, New Adam ah, waxaa la sameeyay iyada oo jidhka ka. gadhwadeen, this is why in the New Covenant the woman and man were mother and son, ma isqaba sidii Aadan iyo Xaawo lahaa.

Taasi Mary hantiyeen Eve ee aan eed lahayn ka hor dayrta waxay ka dhigan tahay, waxay ahayd badan tahay ka reeban ciqaabtooda: xanuunka foosha iyo dhimasho jirka (cf. Gen. 3:16, 19; Rom. 6:23). Xitaa haddii aan cududaar waxyaalahan oo gebi ahaanba ka, Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waxaa haboon ugu yaraan in ay haybiyaan aan caadi ahayn ayaa la siiyey in dhalmada iyo dhimasho.2

Dabaaldega of Virgin ah by aan Yuhuudda ahayn da Fabriano

Corontion of Virgin ah by aan Yuhuudda ahayn da Fabriano

Like soo baxna meydadkii quduusiinta ka dib iskutallaabta (cf. Matt. 27:52), Male ah waa maamaan ah ilaa sarakicidda jirka ee aaminka ah Maalinta Qiyaame, marka waxay noqon doonaan “qabtay … ee daruuraha dhexdooda inaynu Rabbiga hawada kula kulanno ah” (1 Tesaloniika. 4:17).3 Kitaabka Quduuska ah ma aysan ka soo horjeedin fikradda ah male jirka wuxuu galay samada. In Kitaabka, Enoch iyo Eliyaas waxaa kor loogu qaaday samada u gaystay (cf. Gen. 5:24; 2 Boqorradii. 2:11; Hayso. 11:5). Waa run in Kitaabka Quduuska ah si cad uma uusan sheegayaan in Mary loo maleeyey. Weli by calaamo isla, Kitaabka Quduuska ah ma diidi ama ka horimanaya iyada waseeqeeyay.4 Waxaa intaa dheer, halka account si toos ah male ah waa inaan laga helin Kitaabka, waa la hubo laga yaabaa in marinnada qaar ku saabsan sanduuqii axdiga, nooc ka mid ah Mary. Ark waxaa loo sameeyey oo qoryo aan baabba'ayn oo wuxuuna ku dahaadhay dahab saafi ah, sababtoo ah meeshii quduuska ahayd ee shay waxaa la qorsheeyay in ay sidaas oo kale lagu qaado (cf. Ex. 25:10-11); sidaas oo Virgin waxaa ka fadilnaa khayroon daahirnimo ruuxiga ah iyo jidheed iyo dhimashola'aan loogu diyaar sita Wiilka Ilaah. Taasi jirka incorrupt Mary ee, sanduuqii axdiga Cusub, laga qaadi lahaa si ay jannada waxaa loo tilmaamay in Sabuurradii 132:8, taas oo uu dhigayaa, “Kac, Rabbiyow, iyo in meeshaada nasashada tago, adiga iyo sanduuqa itaalkaagaad ah.” Taasi waxay Ark Old-Ballanka mysteriously libdhay at hal dhibic qaarkood taariikhda foreshadows Our Lady ayaa sidoo waseeqeeyay.5 Markabka xurmada leh ku hadhay qarsoon qarniyo ilaa Rasuul Yooxanaa qabtay bidhaamaysa waxaa ka mid ah oo jannada ku jira, sida uu ku sharaxay in MUUJINTII: “Markaasaa macbudkii Ilaah oo jannada ku jira oo la furay, oo sanduuqii axdigiisa oo waxaa lagu arkay isagoo macbudkiisa gudahood … . Oo ku Sugan Calaamad weyn ugu muuqday oo jannada ku jira, qof dumar ah oo qorraxda huwan, la dayaxuna wuxuu ka hooseeyey cagaheeda iyo madaxana waxaa u saarnaa taaj laba iyo toban xiddigood” (11:19, 12:1). John ayaa aragti ka mid ah Hooyo Bixiyahaaga jirka Firdooska deggan tihiin waa wax ugu dhow waxaan ku khasbannahay in account of markhaati sifoobo ah. Waxa uu ku dhaco si ay u sharxaan in ay la soo qaaday xagga samada ka dib loosoo Rabbiga. “Her ilmaha,” wuxuu leeyahay, “waxaa kor loogu qaaday xagga Ilaah iyo carshigiisa, oo naagtu waxay u carartay xagga cidlada galay, halkaas oo ay uga diyaariyey by Ilaah meel, taas oo in la quudiyo kun iyo laba boqol iyo lixdan maalmood” (12:5-6). Sidoo kale, wuxuu leeyahay, “Naagtii ayaa waxaa la siiyey laba baal oo gorgor weyn si ay uga duusho yaabaa in ay ka abeesadii oo cidla ah tagnee, meeshii iyadu waa in la quudiyo wakhti, iyo jeer, iyo wakhtiga nus” (12:14).6

The qoraallada horeyn extant ku sifoobo yihiin qoraalka apocryphal iyo pseudoepigraphical kala duwan, taas oo ka hoosaysa cinwaanka guud ee dhici maris of Mary Virgin ah ama Gudbinta of Mary. The ugu da'da weyn oo ka mid ah, aaminsanyahay in ay ku kooban inta lagu jiro qarnigii labaad by Leucius Karinus, xer u ah John, la rumeysan yahay in ay la ku salaysan dokumenti ah ee asalka ah oo xiliyo xooda, oo mar dambe extant waa.7

aaminsan hore Church ee in Virgin barakaysan ahaa incorrupt in jidhka iyo nafta si dadban taageertaa male ah. si qarsoodi ah ayaa Warqad ku Diognetus (cf. 125), tusaale ahaan, waxaa loola jeedaa iyada sida Virgin ah in aan laydin khiyaanayn karo.8 Dhab ahaan, qorayaasha badan oo hore, gaar ahaan Saints Justin Martyr ee (d. sida. 165) iyo Irenaeus of Lyons (d. sida. 202), Mary barbar iyada aaminnimo in Eve in iyada Dambi. Saint Hippolytus of Rome (d. 235), ardayga ee Ireneaus, marka la barbar dhigo hilibka Mary ee u “alwaax aan baabba'ayn” Nuux (Commentary on Sabuurradii 22). The Under anoo salaadda, kooban ee ku saabsan qarnigii bartamihii saddexaad, oo ku baaqay in Mary “oo keliya saafi ah oo keligiis u duceeyey.”

In Saint Efrayim ee Suuriya Heeso on dhalatay ee, ka qarnigii bartamihii afaraad, isticmaalaya sawirka in Yeeray MUUJINTII 12:4, Mary u muuqataa in ay sii odoroso Gaadhsiinta ee jirkeeda samada, oo wuxuu ku yidhi, “Ilmihii oo aan qaado ayaa waxay igu qaadday … . Wuxuu ka soo dejiyey xootay garbaheeda iyo ka qaaday oo wuxuu i saaray dhexeeya baal iyo duulay oo hawada” (17:1). In 377, Saint Epiphanius of Salamis qoray, “Sidee Mary quduuska ah uma lahaan doonaan boqortooyada jannada hilibkeeda la, tan iyo markii ay ma ahaa la tuhmo, mana dissolute, mana ayay abid sinaysan, iyo tan iyadu marnaba wax qalad ah sameeyeen sidii ilaa falalka jidhka ka walaacsan, laakiin hadhay ahama?” (Panarion 42:12). Qaar ka mid ah ayaa soo jeediyay inuusan yaabaa rumeeyey male ah tan iyo markii uu halkan of galo jirka Mary ee ku hadla oo wuxuu galay samada ku kacsan mustaqbalka. Oo weliba wuxuu dambe xusay in dokumentiga la mid ah, “Haddii ay la dilay, … markaas iyadu ammaanta wada heli la Shuhadada, oo jirkeeda … deggan ka mid ah kuwa ku raaxaysan jiifnay ee barakaysan ee” (ibid. 78:23; xooga ku daray). Isla dhexmarayay iyada dhimasho, isna wuu ku sii si ay sheegayaan in mid ka mid

way dhimatay ama ma dhiman, … iyadu waxaa lagu aasay ama aan la aasay. … Kitaabka si fudud ku aamusan, sababtoo ah weynaanta ciyaaryahanka reer ah, si aan loo dhufan maanka nin la yaab xad-dhaaf ah. …

Haddii Virgin quduuska ah waa dhintay ayaa lagu aasay, hubaal iyada Xukunka ku dhacay sharaf weyn; iyada dhamaadka ahaa ugu saafi ah oo loo caleemo saaray by virginit. …

Ama ayay sii in ay ku noolaadaan. Wixii, in Ilaah, wax aan macquul ahayn ma aha inay sameeyaan wax alla wuxuu doono,; dhanka kale, ninna waxba kama oga waxa iyada dhamaadka ahaa (ibid. 78:11, 23).

Taasi Epiphanius, ma aan ogayn wixii faahfaahin ah ee ku dhaco Mary ee waa si fiican u fahmi–Nasaarada weli ma oga faahfaahinta waxaa ka mid ah iyo waxay u badan tahay Rasuullada ayayan ma midkood ogaan, waayo, jidhka loo qaaday ka qabri ku lifaaqan gudahood.9 Si ka duwan qorayaasha kale ee hore, Si kastaba ha ahaatee, Epiphanius fogaadaa Been faahfaahinta inuu nafsaddiisa. In kastoo mana uu ogayn waxa dhacay, uu ka ogaaday, iftiinka of xurmada kaamil ah Mary ee, in iyada maraayay lahaa in ay mucjiso–wax doonayay inay “dhufan maanka nin la yaab xad-dhaaf ah”–iyo wixii ay kari sii She'ool. “In ka apocalypse ee John,” Waxa kale oo uu xusay, “waxaan ka akhrisan in masduulaagii wuxuu isu tuuray naagta kuwaas oo dhalasho siiyey si ay ilmo lab; laakiin baal oo gorgor ah la siiyey naagtii ku, oo waxay u duulay cidlada, halkaas oo aan masduulaagii iyada lagu gaadhi karo. Tani waxay dhici kartaa in kiiska Mary ee (Rev. 12:13-14)” (ibid. 78:11).

Bilawgii qarnigii shanaad, ama ka hor, Iiddii xuska of Mary–in uu yahay, xuska iyada maraayay–la soo bandhigay galay Liturgia Eastern, gelinayo dhexdooda ugu da'da weyn ee maalmood iid rasmiga ah ee Church ee.10 Ilaa sannadkii la soo 400, Chrysippus Yeruusaalem uga hadashay Sabuurradii 132, “run ahaantii boqornimada Ark The, Ark ugu qaali ah, ahaa abid-Virgin Theotokos; Nuux oo helay khasnaddii quduusnaanta oo dhan” (On Sabuurradii 131(132)).

Qoraaga An asal ka muddadaas waqti isku mid ah, hoos ka qalinka magaca ee Saint Melito of Sardis, u dhow-casriga ah ee Leucius, ayaa caayay isagoo “kharribeen text ugu qadiimiga by micneeyey inuu fikrado shakhsi ahaaneed oo aadan kula raacsaneyn cilmiga Rasuullada” (Bagatti, et al., p. 11). author Tani inaannu soo celin account dhabta ah ee saadaasha ah, oo uu ku eedeeyay Leucius lahaa “hallaysay qalinka xun” (Ansixinta ee Virgin Quduuska ah, gogol dhigga).

In ku saabsan 437, Saint Quodvultdeus aqoonsaday Haweenay ee MUUJINTII 12 sida Virgin ee barakaysan, ogaaney, “Ha iska indha midkiinna (Xaqiiqda) in masduulaagii (ee apocalypse of John Rasuulka) Ibliiska yahay; ogahay in bikrad muujinaysaa Mary, mid ka mid ah Dhawrsoon, kuwaas oo u dhashay our madaxa Dhawrsoon” (Homily saddexaad 3:5).

In ku saabsan bartamihii qarnigii shanaad, Saint Hesychius Yeruusaalem qoray, “The Ark ahu quduusnaanta, ka theotokos Virgin hubaal. Haddaad tahay luul ah ka dibna waa ay noqon Nuux” (Homily on Mary Quduuska ah, Hooyo Ilaah). Qiyaastii 530, Oecumenius sheegay of MUUJINTII 12, “Si hagaagsan ma aragtida iyada tusi ku Sugan Samada iyo dhulka ku dul, sida saafi ah in nafta iyo jidhkaba” (Commentary on Apocalpyse ah). Qoraalka of male ah dhow dhammaadkii qarnigii lixaad, Saint Gregory of Tours (ka duwan Epiphanius) ma fogaado faahfaahinta dhaca ah oo ka mid ah isgoysyada story. “Oo bal eeg,” qoray Gregory, “mar kale Rabbiga u soo ag istaagtay (Rasuulladu); jirka quduuska ah (of Mary) isagoo la helay, Oo wuxuu ku amray in la qaadi doonaa daruur Firdooska” (Siddeed Books of Miracles 1:4).

Dhaleeceyn of waxbarista Marian Church ee ka dhigay badan oo xaqiiqda ah in xisaabaadka horrayn-yaqaan of male ah waxaa laga helaa qoraallada apocryphal, iyo in Aabbayaashow Church ee aan ku hadli jirin waxaa ka mid ah ka hor qarnigii dabayaaqadii-afaraad.

Sidoo kale waa run, Si kastaba ha ahaatee, in Aabbayaashow ma eegto in la saxo aaminsan in male ah; waxay si fudud aamuseen on arrinta–mowqifka aan horay loo arag haddii ay ahayd wax bara dhaxaltooyo, gaar ahaan la siiyey ay baahsanaanta ka mid ah kuwa aaminka ah. Waa arrin aan suurtagal, dhab ahaan, in fikradda ah waseeqeeyay Mary ee, oo wuu tiiriyaa xurmada jidhka aadanaha, ayaa ka mid ah Gnostiga ee asalkiisu ka soo jeedo laga yaabaa, siiyo in ay cambaareeyey jidhka iyo wax walba oo jirka. Kitaabka The, dhab ahaan, inta badan ahaayeen kuwo aan shuqulkii kufaar, laakiin dadka Masiixiyiinta ah xagjir doonaya inay faahfaahin korkiisa dhacdooyinka dhabta ah rogaan ka nolosha Masiixa iyo Saints la haddii kale gudubyadaas qarsoodiga. Iyadoo apocryphists galeen sheekada of male ah, Oo iyagu ma ay u abuurta. Xaqiiqada ah in isgoysyada jiraye shiidaa meel kasta oo adduunka ah Christian, muuqday oo ku qoran luqado badan, oo ay ku jiraan Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Coptic, Syriac, Ethiopic, iyo Carabi, daliil u story of waseeqeeyay Mary ayaa ku faafay adduunka ee qarniyadii hore iyo, oo sidaas daraaddeed, asal ahaan rususha.

Iyadoo Church ee abid la ogyahay khatar ku lug leh ku tiirsan dul shuqullada dabiiciga ah abuur ah, waxa aan la dafiri karin in kernels of runta ku adkaan in shuqullo badan sida. Xasuustaan, tusaale ahaan, in Saint Yuudas waxa ay tilmaamaysaa Malo Muuse iyo First Enoch ee uu Axdiga Cusub Letter (arki Jude 1:9, 14 FF.). Asal si caqli ah lagu arkay:

Waxaan nahay oo aan ogayn in badan oo ka mid ah qoraallada qarsoodi ah ayaa la soo saaray by rag, caan u noqdeen xumaantooda. … Waa in aan sidaas darteed isticmaali digniin ku aqbalayaan, kuwaas oo dhan wuxuu qoray qarsoodi ah in magaca quduusiinta wareejin … maxaa yeelay qaar ka mid ah iyaga ka mid ah waxaa lagu qoray in lagu baabbi'iyo runta ah ee Kitaabka iyo in ay soo rogaan bara been ah. Dhinaca kale, waxaan waa in aan gebi ahaanba iska diido qoraallada muhiim u noqon kara in on Kitaabka daadiyaan iftiin. Waa calaamad of nin weyn inay maqlaan iyo fuliyaan talo ah ee Kitaabka: “Imtixaanka walba; hayn waxa wanaagsan” (1 Tesaloniika. 5:21) (Faallooyinka Matthew 28).

In 494, Pope Saint Gelasius, doonaya inay ilaaliyaan aamin ka dhanka ah saamaynta laga yaabo corruptive oo ka mid ah qoraallada diimeed badan oo qoray su'aal in dunida Christian dhibayay, reissued liiska buugaagta soo qaadanin kor loogu bixiyey uu ka horreeyay, Pope Saint Damasus, weheliyaan buugga dheer buugaag dheeraad ah-kitaabiga ah la aqbali karo iyo wax la aqbali karo.

Soo horjeeda ee Church ayaa ka dhigay arrin xaqiiqada ah in qoraal ahaan ah apocryphal ku sifoobo waxaa ka mid ah ka mid ah buugaagta ka mamnuuc Gelasius’ decre, laakiin Pope u xukumay xisaab apocryphal of male ah, Dabcan, iyo ma male ah laftiisa.

xisaabaadka Apocryphal of aaminsan kale asal yihiin sidaas oo kale cambaareeyay in Amarkii–ka Protoevangelium ee James, tusaale ahaan, heshiisyo la dhalatay ee; iyo Acts ee Peter heshiisyo la waxqabadka adeegayaasha Butros iyo shahiidnimo ee Rome. Xitaa ka badan u barta, qoraalladii Tertullian waa la mamnuucay, inkastoo wuxuu qoray, tusaale ahaan, si fudud xaq Baabtiiska iyo Repentance, difaaco booska asal raaca on maadooyinkan. ma Gelasius’ xukun Buugaagtan ka dhigan in diidmada Baabtiiska iyo in toobaddii, ka dibna, ama ma u leeyihiin in ka badan sameeyo su'aal ah qof Tertullian ee?

Waxaa cad, ka mamnuucay ee buug ee Qadarka Gelasian ma la odhan karaa in ay diidmada ah jumlada ee maaddo buug ama waxyaabaha. Marar badan, deeq dheeraad ah loo baahan lahaa by Church in ay haadiyo soo baxay xubno ka dhab ah waxyeello ka Buugaagtan. Dhanka, iyaga gelinayn hoos ganaax la miyir siiyey hubin iyaga ku hareeraysan.11

Waayo, kuwa doonaya in la helo ee Qadarka Gelasian tanaasulka qaar ka mid ah Infallibility le'daan, waa in lagu sheegay in ka mamnuucay of buug uu leeyahay waxba kuma laha la Pope ee infallibility tan iyo markii ay keliya waa tallaabo edbin ah, ma ku xiran qeexidda ee uu aamino. By dabiiciga ah, tallaabo edbin ah ku xiran yahay isbedel. Waxay taagan tahay meel si kaliya inta uu khatar ay arkeen jirta; mar khatarta uu joogsadey, dhaleecayn waxaa kor u. In kiiska gaar this, sida xeerkoodu Kitaabka Quduuska ah ku koray aqbalo khatarta by Kitaabka libirtay mamnuucidda noqday huriye.

  1. This is extraordinary proof indeed given Christianity’s penchant for preserving and venerating saintly relicsa practice which dates back to the early days of the faith as the Martyrdom of Saint Polycarp, composed in the middle of the second century, shows.
  2. While Catholics have traditionally believed Mary was exempted from labor pains, it has been supposed that she did indeed suffer death in order to perfectly conform to Her Son, who though sinless accepted death (cf. Phil. 2:5 FF.). In defining the dogma of the Assumption, Pius XII avoided saying for certain she had died, merely stating she hadcompleted the course of her earthly life” (Munificentissimus Deus 44).
  3. The Miyeesan of Church Catholic teaches, “The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin is a singular participation in her Son’s Resurrection and an anticipation of the resurrection of other Christians … . She already shares in the glory of her Son’s Resurrection, anticipating the resurrection of all members of his Body” (966, 974).
  4. There are other significant events in the life of the apostolic Church which are omitted from the New Testament as well, such as the martyrdoms of Peter and Paul, and the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman legions in the year 70. According to the Muratorian Fragment, composed in Rome in the latter part of the second century, Luke only included in the Acts Rasuulladu events he had witnessed with his own eyes. That Luke avoided writing of things he had not actually seen helps us to understand why the Assumption was not recorded, for it took place inside a tomb. Unlike the Lord’s ascension, a public event seen by many, the Assumption had no eyewitnesses.
  5. Second Maccabees 2:5 says that Jeremiah sealed the Ark in a cave on Mount Nebo prior to the Babylonian invasion of Jerusalem in 587 B.C. (cf. 2 Boqorradii. 24:13, et al.).
  6. Protestantism tends to see this Woman as either a symbolic figure of Israel or the Church (cf. Gen. 37:9). Catholicism accepts these interpretations, but extends them to include in a specific way Mary, the embodiment of the people of God. Israel bore Christ figuratively; Mary bore Him literally. In commenting on this passage, Saint Quodvultdeus (d. 453), the Bishop of Carthage and a disciple of Saint Augustine, wrote that Maryalso embodied in herself a figure of the holy church: kuwaas oo, how while bearing a son, she remained a virgin, so that the church throughout time bears her members, yet she does not lose her virginity” (Third Homily on the Creed 3:6; see also Clement of Alexandria, Instructor of the Children 1:6:42:1).

    The motif of God’s people escapingon the wings of an eagleto a place of refuge can be found throughout the Old Testament (arki Ex. 19:4; Ps. 54 (55):6-7; Isa. 40:31, et al.). God’s promise ofescape into the wildernessis profoundly fulfilled in the Assumption, Mary being the preeminent representative of His people.

    The symbolic references in MUUJINTII 12 to a duration of time, “one thousand two hundred and sixty days” iyo “for a time, iyo jeer, iyo wakhtiga nus” (6, 14), may represent the period of persecution, which the Church will endure, prior to the Second Coming of Christ.

    Verse 12:17 says the devil, infuriated by the Woman’s escape, set outto make war on the rest of her offspring, on those who keep God’s commandments and give witness to Jesus.That the followers of Christ are consideredthe rest of her offspringsupports the Church’s regard for Mary as the Mother of All Christians (cf. Isa. 66:8; John 19:26-27).

  7. While at one time the isgoysyada was thought to have originated no earlier than the fourth century, certain theological terms used in Leuciusdocument confirm an origin either in the second or third century (Bagatti, et al., p. 14; Bagatti referenced his own works, S. Pietro nellaDormitio Mariae,” pp. 42-48; Ricerche sulle tradizioni della morte della Vergine, pp. 185-214).
  8. The actual text reads: “If you bear the tree of (aqoon) and pluck its fruit, you will always be gathering in the things that are desirable in the sight of God, things that the serpent cannot touch and deceit cannot defile. Then Eve is not seduced, but a Virgin is found trustworthy” (Warqad ku Diognetus 12:7-9). Regarding this passage, Cyril c. Richardson comments, “It is fairly clear that the author intends to state the common Patristic contrastbetween Eve, the disobedient mother of death, and Mary, the obedient mother of life, in which case the parthenos of the text will be the blessed Virgin Mary” (Early Christian Fathers, New York: Collier Books, 1970, p. 224, n. 23). Hilda Graef concurred, oo wuxuu ku yidhi, “It almost seems as if Mary were called Eve without any further explanation” (Mary: A History of Doctrine and Devotion, vol. 1, New York: Sheed and Ward, 1963, p. 38).
  9. In contrast to the isgoysyada account, which claims the Apostles witnessed Mary’s body being transported to heaven, there is a tradition that she died on January 18 (Tobi 21), but that her empty tomb was not discovered till 206 days later on August 15 (Mesore 16) (see Graef, Mary, vol. 1, p. 134, n. 1; the author referenced Dom Capelle, Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 3, 1926, p. 38; M.R. James, The Apocryphal New Testament, 1924, pp. 194-201).
  10. The feast of the Nativity (i.e., Christmas) was established in the early fourth century, during the reign of Constantine. The feast of the Ascension was established in the fifth century, having originally been included in the feast of Pentecost.
  11. In sidan, the Church resembles the mother who forbids her children to watch a particular TV show until she has had the chance to watch the show and judge its contents for herself. The Church has always erred on the side of caution in discerning matters of faith and morals. Consider that, more recently, Saints Teresa of Avila (d. 1582) and John of the Cross (d. 1591), now revered as Doctors of the Church, were interrogated by the Inquisition on the suspicion of heresy. Sidoo kale, the diary of Saint Faustina Kowalska (d. 1938), Mercy Ilaahnimadu in My Soul, was at one time rejected as heterodox by Church theologians, but subsequently gained official approval under Pope John Paul the Great. Faustina’s revelations found in the diary, dhab ahaan, have led to the institution of the feast of Divine Mercy, now universally celebrated in the Church.