Maryam taxmin

Duccio di Buoninsegna tomonidan Bibi Maryamning O'lim Image

Duccio di Buoninsegna tomonidan Bibi Maryamning O'lim

Taxmin e'tiqodni ekanligini Mary, uning yerdagi hayoti tuzishda, osmonga tana va ruh olingan. Bu kitobning turli oyatlarni shama, ehtimol, eng yaqqol Vahiy 12, va erta nasroniylar iymon edi, qadimiy ibodatxona xizmati marosimlari va yozuvlariga tomonidan ko'rsatilgan. Perhaps the greatest historical proof of the Assumption, garchi, hech individual yoki jamoa hech Maryamning tanasini ega da'vo qilgan haqiqatdir.1 Bir Maryam tanani edi amin bo'lishimiz mumkin, juda ko'p Saints yuksak, er yuzida qoldi, Masihning izdoshlari unga yaxshi xabardor bo'lar edi.

Maryamning o'tib joyi haqida ikki xil e'tiqod bo'lishi uchun bor sodir: Quddusga bir belgilarini; Efes boshqa. ikki, Sobiq an'anaga katta va yaxshi asosli emas. Qizig'i etarli, bo'sh, birinchi asrda maqbara Quddusda uning o'tib saytida da qazish ishlari chog'ida topilgan edi 1972 (Bellarmino Bagatti ko'rish, Michael Piccirillo, va Albert Prodomo, O.F.M., Hefsimaniyaga Maryam qabriga Yangi Kashfiyotlar, Jerusalem: Franciscan Chop Press, 1975). Bu Falastinda yashagan erta otalari bilan ataladi emas edi, chunki ba'zi olimlar bu qabr haqiqiyligini shubha, Bunday Quddus CYRIL sifatida (d. 386), Epiphanius (d. 403), va Jerome (d. 420). Lekin, arxeolog Bellarmino Bagatti ishora sifatida, u Yahudo-masihiylar mol-mulk turgan, chunki Maryamning qabr odatda majusiy kelib chiqishi Ilk masihiylar tomonidan yo'l qo'ymaslik edi, kim “bid'atchilar schismatics bo'lmasa ko'rib chiqildi” (Bundagi., p. 15). Shu sababdan, boshqa muqaddas saytlar, Yuqori xonalarning kabi, yo erta asarlarida paydo bo'lmagan (Bundagi.). Bu Rim General Titusga kuchlari yilda Quddusni yo'q, deb, shuningdek unutmaslik kerak 70, vayronalar ostidan yahudiy va nasroniy muqaddas joylarni yashirib. In 135, Imperator Hadrian muqaddas saytlar xarobalari ustida butparast ma'badni qurish express maqsadida yana shaharni tekislangan. IV asrda kamida imperator Konstantin Buyuk asta-sekin masihchilikning hallowed saytlarni qayta tiklash boshlaganida qadar Maryamning o'lim va boshqa muqaddas joylarda spot yo'qolgan qoldi, Baytul Maqdis bilan boshlangan 336.] Taxmin bir tana tirilishga Undan keyin quyidagi Masihning shogirdi misol beradi, pointing to the reality for which all Christians hope. Oxir oqibatda, uning muqaddasligi uchun emas, balki tasdiqlaydi, Bundan tashqari, lekin Isoning muqaddasligi uchun, kimning hisob kuni u maxsus huquqlardan qabul.

u har doim nasroniylar iymon qilingan bo'lsa-da, Taxmin rasman Papa Pius XII tomonidan katolik cherkovining bir arkonlarini e'lon qilindi 1950. Albatta, bir inson shaxsining sha'ni qarshi juda ko'p jiddiy adolatsizlikka guvoh asr Markaziy nuqta shu dunyoga Maryamning tana tirilish tasdiqlovchi Xudoning mehribon hikmat ko'rish mumkin. dogma ning e'lon vaqtida, jahon fashistlarning o'lim lagerlari dahshatli chiqqan va tez tug'ilmagan bolaning davlat himoyalangan o'ldirishni yaqinlashgan. ayol va onalikni uning bosh kasblardan muruvvat, ayniqsa, zamonaviy jamiyat tomonidan hujum qilindi, shahvat bir ob'ektga uning tashqi go'zallik ustiga haddan ortiq band va uni kamaytirish hech harakat qilgan. bu bayonotlarga keskin farq O'lim madaniyat, Mary’s Assumption declares the dignity of womanhood and of the human body, inson shaxsning, kuchli tarzda.

Albrecht johillik bilan Bibi Maryamning ko'tarilish

Albrecht johillik bilan Bibi Maryamning ko'tarilish

Assumption dogma Masihning qo'y boqish uchun cherkov hokimiyati ustidan xosdir (CF. John 21:15-17; Luqo 10:16) va Najotkorimiz va'dasi Uning cherkovi haqiqatni o'rgatadi, deb (CF. John 14:26; 16:13; Matt. 16:18-19; 1 Tim. 3:15). nizolar sodiq orasida oshib, bu ishonchli vakili hamisha haqiqiy ta'limotini ilohiy bir ishonchli qilindi. Biz Quddus Kengashi da'vati bu ko'rish (Havoriylar 15); Havoriylarning Pavlusning farog'atga erishishga’ uning konvertatsiya keyin uning va'z ko'p yillar tasdiqlash (gal. 2:1-2); va ikkinchisi Ekumenik Kengashlari harakatida, unda Masihning ilohiyligini e'lon 325, Muqaddas Ruh Xudo bilan 381, va Maryamning ilohiy tug'ruqxona 431.

teologik, Taxmin yaqindan Beg'ubor Homiladorlik bilan bog'liq, qaysi ta'kidlanadi Mary, Xudodan maxsus inoyat orqali, uning mavjudligi birinchi kundan boshlab asl gunoh dog 'dan saqlab qilindi. Her freedom from sin is implicit in God’s promise upon the Fall of Man to place enmity between the devil and the Mother of the Redeemer (gen. 3:15). havoriylar marta qaytib, Cherkovi Yangi Momo Havoning sifatida Maryam hurmat qilgan, Yangi Odam sodiq yordamchi. birinchi Momo Havo shaytonning yolg'on iymon kabi, a tushgan farishta, and by rejecting God’s plan brought sin and death into the world; so the New Eve believed the truths of Gabriel, bir Archangel, and by cooperating with God’s plan brought salvation and life into the world. Yangi Momo Havoning sifatida Maryam borasida, Bundan tashqari, biz najot uyushtirgandi ekanligini tushunib kelgan, hayratlanarli darajada tom ma'noda Xudo bizning kuz voqealarni bekor. dastlab, masalan, Adam birinchi keldi; va Momo Havo uning tanaga tashkil etildi. najot yilda, Mary, Yangi Momo Havo, birinchi keldi; va Masih, Yangi Adam, Uning badani tashkil etildi. tasodifiy, this is why in the New Covenant the woman and man were mother and son, Odam Ato va Momo Havoning sifatida juftlar edi emas.

kuz anglatadi oldin Maryam Momo Havoning aybsizligini ega ekanligini, u uning azobidan mumkin ozod bo'ldi: to'lg'oq va tana o'lim (CF. gen. 3:16, 19; ROM. 6:23). butunlay bu narsani ozod emas bo'lsa ham, ammo, u favqulodda yaxshi fazilatlari tug'ruq va o'lim uni berildi kamida deb o'rinli bo'ladi.2

Majusiy da Fabriano tomonidan Bibi Maryamning Coronation

Majusiy da Fabriano tomonidan Bibi Maryamning Corontion

Kabi Mixlanishning keyin azizlarning organlari yuksalishiga (CF. Matt. 27:52), Taxmin Qiyomat kuni mo'minlarning tana tirilishi uchun alomat bo'ladi, Ular kerak bo'lsa “ko'tarilamiz … bulutlar Rabbimizni havoda kutib olish uchun” (1 Salon. 4:17).3 Muqaddas Kitob osmonga bir tana taxmin tushunchasini qarshi emas. kitobda, Xano'x va Ilyos osmonga tana qadar qabul qilinadi (CF. gen. 5:24; 2 kg. 2:11; bor. 11:5). Bu Muqaddas Kitob ochiq Mary zimmasiga deb aytmaydi to'g'ridir. Biroq Xuddi tomonidan, Muqaddas Kitob inkor yoki uning taxmin zid emas.4 Bundan tashqari, Assumption bevosita hisob kitobdan topilmadi esa, u Ahd sandig'ini doir ba'zi oyatlarning chetlatiladi mumkin, Maryam bir turi. ob'ektlarini muqaddaslik u ham shunday oshirish uchun mo'ljallangan, chunki Ark aynimagan yog'ochdan yasalgan va toza oltin bilan qoplatdi edi (CF. Ex. 25:10-11); xuddi shunday Virgin Xudoning O'g'lini atalgan tayyorgarlik ma'naviy va jismoniy poklik va chirimas bilan jihozlangan edi. Maryamning incorrupt organi deb, Yangi Ahd Ark, osmonga olinadi edi ko'rsatilgan Zabur 132:8, qaysi deyilgan, “O'rningdan tur, Ey Robbimiz, Sening beshik joyga borib, Sen va sening kuch sandig'i.” Old-Kelishuv Ark sirli tarixida muayyan nuqtada g'oyib Bu shuningdek Bizning xonimining taxmin foreshadows.5 Havoriy Yuhanno osmonda unga chalingan bir alomat qadar muqaddas idish asrlar davomida yashirin qolib, U tasvirlaydi sifatida Vahiy: “So'ngra osmonda Xudoning ma'badi ochildi, va uning ahd sandig'i uning ma'badda doirasida ko'rgan edi … . Va katta belgi osmonda paydo, quyoshga burkangan bir ayol, o'n ikki yulduzli toj uning oyoqlari ostida va uning boshiga Moon bilan” (11:19, 12:1). jannatda jismoniy yashash Najotkor onasi Yahyoning ko'rish Assumption bir guvoh hisob biz bor eng yaqin narsa. U Xudoning yuksalish quyidagi u osmonga olingan edi tushuntirishga davom. “uning bola,” u e'lon, “Xudoga va Uning taxtida qadar qo'lga olindi, va ayol sahroga qochib ketdi, u Xudo tomonidan tayyorlangan bo'lib ega bo'lgan, unda bir ming ikki yuz oltmish kun davomida oziqlanib turishi” (12:5-6). Xuddi deydi, “ayol sahroga ilon uchib mumkin katta burgutning ikki qanoti berildi, joyga qaerda u bir muddat oziqlanib turishi emas, va marta, va yarim vaqt” (12:14).6

Sharti bilan erta mavjud yozuvlari turli noaniq va pseudoepigraphical matnlar bor, qaysi umumiy sarlavhasi ostida tushib Maryam o'tishi yoki Maryam o'tib. Bu eng qadimgi, Leucius Karinus ikkinchi asrda topgan, deb ishoniladi, Yuhanno shogirdi, havoriylar davridan original hujjat asoslangan bo'lishi o'ylangan, qaysi endi mavjud emas.7

erta cherkov e'tiqod Bibi tanada incorrupt ekanligini va jon bilvosita taxmin qo'llab-quvvatlaydi. anonim Diognetus maktub (CF. 125), masalan, aldab bo'lmaydi bokira deb unga ishora.8 Aslini olib qaraganda, ko'p qadimiy yozuvchilar, Eng muhimi Saints Justin shahid (d. sifatida. 165) va WilliLyons of Irenaeus (d. sifatida. 202), uning gunohlari Havoga uning sadoqat bilan Maryamni qarama-qarshi. Rim Sankt Hippolytus (d. 235), Ireneaus talabasi, uchun Maryamning go'shtini nisbatan “aynimagan yog'och” Arkning (Zabur haqida Sharh 22). The Sening ostida namoz, haqida o'rtalarida uchinchi asrda tashkil topgan, Maryam chaqiradi “yolg'iz sof va yolg'iz duo qildi.”

Saint Efrayim Suriya ning Tavalludi ilohiy, o'rtalarida to'rtinchi asrdan boshlab, eslaydi tasvirlarini yordamida Vahiy 12:4, Maryam osmonga vujudida tashishni bashorat ko'rinadi, deb, “Men oshirish Boba, meni oshirdi … . U zot O'z pinyon egilib oldi va Uning qanotlari orasida meni qo'yish va havoga ko'tarildi” (17:1). In 377, Salamis Sankt Epiphanius yozgan, “muqaddas Maryam badan bilan Osmon Shohligiga ega bo'lmaydi qanday, u odobsizu emas edi, chunki, na maishat, na u hech zino edi, u qadar yomon narsa qilmadi hech qachon, chunki va insoniy xatti-harakatlar xavotirda sifatida, lekin zanglamaydigan qoldi?” (Panarion 42:12). Ba'zi u kelajakda zamonda osmonga bu erda Maryamning tana kirish gapiradi, chunki u beayb iymon bo'lmas edi taklif qilgan. Biroq o'sha hujjatda keyinchalik qayd, “u qatl qilingan bo'lsa, … keyin u shahid bilan birga ulug'vorligini olingan, va uning tanasi … muborak of orom bahramand qilguvchilardan yashaydi” (Bundagi. 78:23; e'tibor qo'shildi). uning o'limi ustidan bahs-munozara, U yo, deb aytish uchun ketdi

u vafot yoki o'lmadi, … u dafn etilgan yoki dafn emas edi. … Kitob shunchaki jim bo'lib, chunki dohiysi buyukligi of, maqsadida ortiqcha hayrat bilan odamning fikrini qoralash emas. …

muqaddas Virgin o'lik va dafn qilingan bo'lsa, Albatta, uning hokimiyat buyuk sharaf bilan sodir; uning end eng sof va virginit tomonidan toj edi. …

Yoki u yashash uchun davom. Uchun, Xudoga, U nimani xohlasa, albatta, mumkin emas emas; boshqa tarafdan, hech kim uning oqibati aniq bilur (Bundagi. 78:11, 23).

Maryamning o'lim mukammal tushunarli bo'lgan Epiphanius ma'lumotlarni bilmasligini–Nasroniylar hali tafsilotlarini bilmayman va bu o'zlari ham bilmas edi Havoriylar, ehtimol,, Badani bir ilova qabr ichidan olingan uchun.9 Boshqa erta yozuvchilar farqli o'laroq, ammo, Epiphanius o'zi uchun ma'lumotlarni to'qib yo'l qo'ymaslik. unda sodir bo'lgan aniq nima bilmas edi-da, u bilardi, Maryamning mukammal muqaddasligi nurida, uning o'lim mo''jizaviy bo'lgan edi, deb–deb, bir narsa “haddan tashqari hayrat bilan odamning fikrini zarba”–va u qabr qolgan olmasligini. “Yuhannoning Apocalypse yilda,” U, shuningdek, qayd, “Biz ajdar bir erkak bola tuqqan ayol o'zini otdi, deb o'qib; lekin bir burgutning qanotlari ayolga berildi, va u cho'lga uchib, Ajdaho unga erishish mumkin emas qaerda. Bu Maryamning holda sodir bo'lishi mumkin (Vah. 12:13-14)” (Bundagi. 78:11).

beshinchi asrning boshida, yoki oldingi, Maryam nishonlanishi munosabati bayrami–ya'ni, uning o'tgan Qutlug '–Sharqiy Liturgy kiritildi, Cherkov rasmiy bayram kunlari eng qadimgi orasida uni joylashtirish.10 yil atrofida 400, Quddus Chrysippus sharhladi Zabur 132, “albatta, shohona Ark, eng qimmatbaho Ark, hech-Virgin edi Theotokos; Barcha poklanish xazina qabul Ark” (Zabur to'g'risida 131(132)).

Xuddi shu vaqt bir umumiy yozuvchi, ostida faoliyat qalam nomi Sardis Sankt Melito of, Leucius bir yaqin-zamonaviy, ega bo'lgan uchun, uni haqorat “Havoriylardan ta'lim bilan rozi bo'lmasangiz, uning shaxsiy fikrlarini bayon eng qadimiy matnni buzilgan” (Bagatti, va boshq., p. 11). Bu muallifi Assumption haqiqiy hisob tiklash uchun harakat, u Leucius edi gumon “yomon qalam bilan buzuq” (Muqaddas Bibi Maryamning o'tib, prolog).

taxminan 437, Sankt Quodvultdeus ayol aniqlandi Vahiy 12 Bibi Maryam deb, qayd, “Sizlardan hech e'tiborsizlik bo'lsin (dalil) ajdaho, deb (Havoriy Yuhanno Apocalypse yilda) iblisdir; Maryam anglatadi, deb bilaman, pok bir, kim bizning pok rahbari tuqqan” (uchinchi nasihat 3:5).

beshinchi asrning haqida o'rtalarida, Quddus Sankt Hesychius yozgan, “Sening poklanish Ark, Albatta Virgin theotokos. Sen marvaridni bo'lsang, keyin u Ark bo'lishi kerak” (Muqaddas Maryamga nasihat, Xudoning onasi). atrofida 530, Oecumenius dedi Vahiy 12, “To'g'ri ko'rish er yuzida osmonda emas, balki uni ko'rsatadi, jon va tana pok sifatida” (Apocalpyse haqida Sharh). oltinchi asrning oxirida yaqin Assumption yozma, Tours Sankt Gregory (Epiphanius farqli o'laroq) ning tasodifiy ma'lumotlarni oldini olish emas, balki o'tish hikoya. “Va birdan,” Gregorilar yozgan, “yana Rabbiy turgan (Havoriylar); muqaddas tanasi (Maryam) qabul qilingan, U jannatga bulut ichida olinadi, deb amr” (Mo''jizalar sakkiz Kitoblar 1:4).

Assumption erta mashhur hisob noaniq asarlarida uchraydi, deb cherkov Marian ta'limotining Tanqidchilar aslida ko'p qildik, va cherkov otalari, kech-IV asr oldin uning gapirmaganligi.

Bu ham to'g'ri, ammo, Otalar beayb e'tiqodni tuzatish uchun qarash emas, balki; Ular shunchaki masala bo'yicha jim qoldi–misli ko'rilmagan pozitsiyasi bir bid'at o'quv bo'lsa, ayniqsa ishonchli orasida uning tarqalganligi berilgan. Bu mumkin emas, haqiqatdan ham, deb Maryamning Assumption tushunchasi, qaysi inson tanasining muqaddasligini asrab avaylaydi, Ahli orasida paydo bo'lishi mumkin, Ular tanani qoraladi va barcha narsani jismoniy, deb berilgan. Apocrypha, Aslini olib qaraganda, bid'atchi ko'pincha edi, balki ish, lekin aks holda siriga kafan edi Masih va Aziz hayoti haqiqiy voqealar ustiga tafsilotlarni yuklovchi istagan ortodoksal masihiylarning. apocryphists Assumption hikoya bezatilgan esa, ular uni to'qib bermadi. haqiqat deb o'tish Christian dunyoda deyarli hamma joyda mavjud, Bir necha tilda paydo, ibroniy jumladan, Yunon, Lotin, qibtiy, suryoniy, Habash, va arab, Maryamning Assumption hikoya erta asrlarda umum tarqalgan tasdiqlaydi va, shu sababli, havoriylar kelib chiqishi.

Cherkovi hech bir soxta tabiati asarlarida suyanib jalb xavf bilimdon edi-da, u haqiqatning yadrolari ko'p bunday ishlarda ustun ekanligini inkor etilishi mumkin emas. yodlamoq, masalan, Sankt Yahudo Suratidir Musoning taxmin va birinchi Xano'x Uning Yangi Ahdda xat (ko'rish Yahudo 1:9, 14 ff.). Kelib oqilona kuzatilgan:

Biz bu sir asarlaridan ko'plab odamlar tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan, deb emas, balki g'ofil bo'lgan, ularning gunohlari uchun mashhur. … Shuning uchun biz azizlarning nomi ostida aylanib barcha bu yashirin yozuvlariga qabul ehtiyot foydalanish kerak … Ulardan ba'zilari bizning kitobdan haqiqatni yo'q qilish va soxta ta'lim yuklovchi yozilgan edi, chunki. Boshqa tarafdan, Biz butunlay kitob oydinlik kirita foydali bo'lishi mumkin yozuvlariga rad kerak emas. Bu eshitish va Kitobdan maslahat amalga oshirish uchun katta odamning belgisidir: “Test hamma narsa; nima yaxshi saqlab” (1 Salon. 5:21) (Matto haqida izoh 28).

In 494, Papa Sankt Gelasius, Christian dunyoni bo'g'ilib shubhali mualliflik ko'plab diniy kitoblar potentsial zararli ta'siridan ishonchli himoya qilish uchun izlab, Uning avvalgi tomonidan tuzilgan kanonik kitoblar ro'yxatini qayta, Papa Sankt Damasus, maqbul va nomaqbul qo'shimcha-kitobiy kitoblar uzoq katalogdagi bilan birlashganda.

Cherkov Muxoliflar sharti bilan bir noaniq yozish Gelasius harom kitoblari orasida kiritilgan, deb aslida bir masalani qildik’ decre, lekin Papa Assumption bir noaniq hisob qoraladi, albatta, emas, balki Assumption o'zini.

Boshqa ortodoksal e'tiqod noaniq hisob xuddi shunday farmoniga qoralaydigan–The Yoqub Protoevangelium, masalan, Tavalludi bilan imkoniyatini; va Butrusning Havoriylar Rimda Butrusning missionerlik faoliyati va shahidlik bilan imkoniyatini. nuqtaga ham ko'proq, Tertullianning fikriga yozuvlari man etiladi, Uning asarlarida da, masalan, oddiygina nomli Cho'qintirish va afsus, Bu mavzularda umumiy pozitsiyasini himoya. Gelasius bormi’ Bu kitoblarning mahkumlik cho'mdirilish va tavba rad tashkil, so'ng, yoki Tertullianning fikriga axloqidan bir savol bilan ko'proq qilish kerak emas?

Shubhasiz, bir kitob man Gelasian Farmoni Kitobning mavzu yoki mazmunan bir ulgurji rad deb bo'lmaydi. Ko'p hollarda, ko'proq stipendiya bu kitoblardan albatta zararli elementlar amalga g'alvirdan uchun cherkovining tomonidan talab qilinadi. Shu vaqitning o'zida, Ularni atrofdagi noaniqlik berilgan taqiq ostida ularni har tomonlama puxta o'ylangan edi joylashtirish.11

topish uchun istaganlar uchun Gelasian Farmoni Papa yanglishmaydigan ba'zi murosaga, u faqat intizomiy harakat bo'lgani bir kitobning man Papa ning yanglishmaydigan bilan hech qanday aloqasi yo'q, deb tushuntirdi lozim, tug'ishi belgilash bilan bog'liq bo'lmagan. tabiatan, intizomiy harakat o'zgarishi lozim. Bu faqat shuning uchun uzoq idrok tahdid mavjud bo'lib joyda turibdi; tahdid o'tdi bir marta, tanbeh bekor qilinadi. Ushbu holda, Bibliya canon qabul o'sdi, deb apokrifani solayotgan tahdid so'nib va ​​ban keraksiz bo'lib.

  1. This is extraordinary proof indeed given Christianity’s penchant for preserving and venerating saintly relicsa practice which dates back to the early days of the faith as the Martyrdom of Saint Polycarp, composed in the middle of the second century, shows.
  2. While Catholics have traditionally believed Mary was exempted from labor pains, it has been supposed that she did indeed suffer death in order to perfectly conform to Her Son, who though sinless accepted death (CF. Phil. 2:5 ff.). In defining the dogma of the Assumption, Pius XII avoided saying for certain she had died, merely stating she hadcompleted the course of her earthly life” (Munificentissimus Deus 44).
  3. The Katolik cherkovining so'roq teaches, “The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin is a singular participation in her Son’s Resurrection and an anticipation of the resurrection of other Christians … . She already shares in the glory of her Son’s Resurrection, anticipating the resurrection of all members of his Body” (966, 974).
  4. There are other significant events in the life of the apostolic Church which are omitted from the New Testament as well, such as the martyrdoms of Peter and Paul, and the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman legions in the year 70. According to the Muratorian Fragment, composed in Rome in the latter part of the second century, Luke only included in the Havoriylar events he had witnessed with his own eyes. That Luke avoided writing of things he had not actually seen helps us to understand why the Assumption was not recorded, for it took place inside a tomb. Unlike the Lord’s ascension, a public event seen by many, the Assumption had no eyewitnesses.
  5. Ikkinchi Maccabees 2:5 says that Jeremiah sealed the Ark in a cave on Mount Nebo prior to the Babylonian invasion of Jerusalem in 587 B.C. (CF. 2 kg. 24:13, va boshq.).
  6. Protestantism tends to see this Woman as either a symbolic figure of Israel or the Church (CF. gen. 37:9). Catholicism accepts these interpretations, but extends them to include in a specific way Mary, the embodiment of the people of God. Israel bore Christ figuratively; Mary bore Him literally. In commenting on this passage, Saint Quodvultdeus (d. 453), the Bishop of Carthage and a disciple of Saint Augustine, wrote that Maryalso embodied in herself a figure of the holy church: ya'ni, how while bearing a son, she remained a virgin, so that the church throughout time bears her members, yet she does not lose her virginity” (Third Homily on the Creed 3:6; see also Clement of Alexandria, Instructor of the Children 1:6:42:1).

    The motif of God’s people escapingon the wings of an eagleto a place of refuge can be found throughout the Old Testament (ko'rish Ex. 19:4; Ps. 54 (55):6-7; Isa. 40:31, va boshq.). God’s promise ofescape into the wildernessis profoundly fulfilled in the Assumption, Mary being the preeminent representative of His people.

    The symbolic references in Vahiy 12 to a duration of time, “one thousand two hundred and sixty days” va “for a time, va marta, va yarim vaqt” (6, 14), may represent the period of persecution, which the Church will endure, prior to the Second Coming of Christ.

    Verse 12:17 says the devil, infuriated by the Woman’s escape, belgilangan “to make war on the rest of her offspring, on those who keep God’s commandments and give witness to Jesus.That the followers of Christ are consideredthe rest of her offspringsupports the Church’s regard for Mary as the Mother of All Christians (CF. Isa. 66:8; John 19:26-27).

  7. While at one time the o'tish was thought to have originated no earlier than the fourth century, certain theological terms used in Leuciusdocument confirm an origin either in the second or third century (Bagatti, va boshq., p. 14; Bagatti referenced his own works, S. Pietro nellaDormitio Mariae,” pp. 42-48; Ricerche sulle tradizioni della morte della Vergine, pp. 185-214).
  8. The actual text reads: “If you bear the tree of (bilim) and pluck its fruit, you will always be gathering in the things that are desirable in the sight of God, things that the serpent cannot touch and deceit cannot defile. Then Eve is not seduced, but a Virgin is found trustworthy” (Diognetus maktub 12:7-9). Regarding this passage, Cyril c. Richardson comments, “It is fairly clear that the author intends to state the common Patristic contrastbetween Eve, the disobedient mother of death, and Mary, the obedient mother of life, in which case the parthenos of the text will be the blessed Virgin Mary” (Early Christian Fathers, New York: Collier Books, 1970, p. 224, n. 23). Hilda Graef concurred, deb, “It almost seems as if Mary were called Eve without any further explanation” (Mary: A History of Doctrine and Devotion, vol. 1, New York: Sheed and Ward, 1963, p. 38).
  9. In contrast to the o'tish account, which claims the Apostles witnessed Mary’s body being transported to heaven, there is a tradition that she died on January 18 (Tobi 21), but that her empty tomb was not discovered till 206 days later on August 15 (Mesore 16) (see Graef, Mary, vol. 1, p. 134, n. 1; the author referenced Dom Capelle, Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 3, 1926, p. 38; M.R. James, The Apocryphal New Testament, 1924, pp. 194-201).
  10. The feast of the Nativity (ya'ni,, rojdestvo) was established in the early fourth century, during the reign of Constantine. The feast of the Ascension was established in the fifth century, having originally been included in the feast of Pentecost.
  11. Shu tarzda, shu ravishda, shunday qilib, the Church resembles the mother who forbids her children to watch a particular TV show until she has had the chance to watch the show and judge its contents for herself. The Church has always erred on the side of caution in discerning matters of faith and morals. Consider that, more recently, Saints Teresa of Avila (d. 1582) and John of the Cross (d. 1591), now revered as Doctors of the Church, were interrogated by the Inquisition on the suspicion of heresy. Xuddi shunday, the diary of Saint Faustina Kowalska (d. 1938), Divine Mercy in My Soul, was at one time rejected as heterodox by Church theologians, but subsequently gained official approval under Pope John Paul the Great. Faustina’s revelations found in the diary, Aslini olib qaraganda, have led to the institution of the feast of Divine Mercy, now universally celebrated in the Church.