Giáo hội nhìn thấy đời sống của người tín hữu, trong một cảm giác, như cuộc hành trình của riêng cá nhân của một người qua vùng hoang dã đối với “miền đất hứa” của sự sống đời đời trong Kingdom của Cha.
Cũng giống như người Do Thái cổ đại đã được hỗ trợ trong phân đoạn của họ qua vùng hoang dã với manna và nước từ đá, so are Christians upheld on their journey by the grace they receive through the Sacraments (see Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians 10:1).
The Sacraments are the means God has established to cleanse, nuôi, heal, and care for His children of the New Covenant. The Lord has provided for each step of our spiritual journey: the commencement of the journey in Baptism; our nourishment and strengthening in the Eucharist and Confirmation; our restoration when we fall in Confession and in a special way in the Anointing of the Sick, which is often also a final preparation before crossing over the threshold of death to be received into the Father’s embrace.1
The Sacraments are signs which convey the grace they symbolize. The sacramental concept is found throughout the Bible, but nowhere more profoundly than in the healing ministry of Our Lord Jesus Christ.
Consider the Gospel story of the man born blind in which clay, a physical object, becomes a channel for the transmission of God’s grace (Nhà vệ sinh 9:6). On another occasion, a woman with a hemorrhage is cured by touching the Savior’s garments—that is, God’s power is transferred through the material of Jesus’ clothing (xem Đánh dấu 5:25 ff.).
Trong Kinh Thánh, sacred oil is used in ritual healings. We see this in the ministry of the Apostles, who “cast out many demons, and anointed with oil many that were sick and healed them” (Đánh dấu 6:13). The practice of anointing the sick was an official rite of the Apostolic Church, as the Apostle James revealed writing:
Là bất kỳ trong số các bạn ốm? Hãy để anh ta gọi cho các trưởng lão của nhà thờ, và hãy cầu nguyện cho anh ấy, xức dầu nhân danh Chúa; và cầu nguyện bởi đức tin sẽ cứu người bệnh, và Chúa sẽ đỡ kẻ ấy dậy; và nếu anh ta đã phạm tội, ông sẽ được tha thứ. Vậy, hãy xưng tội cùng nhau, và cầu nguyện cho nhau, mà bạn có thể được chữa lành (Jas. 5:14-16).
This passage echoes the counsel of Huấn Ca, "Con trai của tôi, when you are sick do not be negligent, but pray to the Lord, and he will heal you. Give up your faults and direct your hands aright, and cleanse your heart from all sin” (38:9-10).
The healing of the body and soul are often interrelated, though the latter is considered to be the greater work. Jesus inquired of His critics:
“Which is easier, to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven,'Hoặc nói, ‘Rise and walk?’ But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins … Rise, take up your bed and go home.” (Matthew 9:5-6)
In the Anointing of the Sick, a physical healing often accompanies the spiritual healing, though the spiritual healing is the true focus of the rite.2 Thật trùng hợp, the Apostles’ acts of anointing in Đánh dấu 6:13 are prefaced by preaching on repentance from sin (6:12). Tương tự như vậy, trong James 5 the emphasis shifts from a bodily to a spiritual cure, the references to “the sick man” being “saved” and “healed” implying the sinner receiving forgiveness.
The witness to the Anointing of the Sick in the earliest historical Christian writings is sparse by comparison to the other Sacraments, though it is implied in the penitential practices of the Church, especially in her reliance upon the clergy for the forgiveness of sins.
Trong khoảng năm 150, Saint Justin the Martyr affirmed that the presbyters, who presided over the Eucharistic celebration, had among their many duties the care of the sick (Đầu tiên xin lỗi 67). Trong khoảng 215, acknowledging the power of the bishop to forgive sins, Saint Hippolytus of Rome revealed that the oil blessed by the bishop would “give strength to all that taste of it and health to all that use it” (Tông Truyền thống 5:2). The Council of Nicaea in 325 decreed the Viaticum should not be refused the dying (Canon 13).
- The concept of a spiritual journey is contained in the Latin term viaticum or “food for the journey,” which refers to the Eucharist received during the Last Rites. ↩
- Các Sách Giáo Lý của Giáo Hội Công Giáo bang, “Over the centuries the Anointing of the Sick was conferred more and more exclusively on those at the point of death. Because of this it received the name ‘Extreme Unction.’ Notwithstanding this evolution the liturgy has never failed to beg the Lord that the sick person may recover his health if it would be conducive to his salvation” (qua. 1512). ↩