Kungani amaBhayibheli zihlukile?

Image of a painting of the Transfiguration of Christ by Paolo Veronese

Ngokusobala, amaBhayibheli kuhluke ngenxa izinguqulo, kodwa kukhona umehluko okubalulekile, too, futhi lokho kuhlanganisa indlela yokwakheka ibhayibheli, ikakhulukazi izincwadi wamukela eTestamenteni Elidala.

ngokuvamile, AmaKatolika namanye amaKristu avame ukuba bavumelane amabhuku ukufaka eTestamenteni Elisha, kodwa Ziphikisana ubuqiniso izincwadi eziyisikhombisa Old Testament amaKatolika zihlanganisa.

Lezi zincwadi, ebizwa ngokuthi deuterocanonical (noma "uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli yesibili") izincwadi ngoba isimo sazo ukuthi baphikisana okwesikhathi. Nokho, ekuqaleni noMkhandlu baseRoma 382 A.D., okuyinto obize ngaphansi kwegunya uPapa Saint Damasus mina, iSonto LamaKatolika wamukele semthethweni futhi bayakufanelekela zalezi zincwadi, kuyilapho kweminye imiphakathi abangamaKristu banemithwalo asenzi.

I izincwadi:

Lezi zincwadi deuterocanonical zifakwe Canon adumile ase-Aleksandriya, inguqulo yesiGreki Old Testament ekhiqizwa phakathi 250 futhi 100 B.C. Le mithetho lenzeka Ababhali abangamaJuda ayisikhombisa ngesicelo the Faro uPtolemy II Philadelphus, ababefisa ube iqoqo zifane zobuJuda Elingcwele Izincwadi lihunyushelwa esiGrekini ekufakweni Library of Alexandria. Uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli ezivezwa balaba babhali ayisikhombisa liye behlonipha zabo imithetho eyabizwa ngokuthi i-Septuagint ngemva ayisikhombisa, egameni lesi Latin i "engamashumi ayisikhombisa."

I-Septuagint yayisetshenziswa ePalestina yasendulo futhi ngisho olufuna Ithu Lord nabafundi bakhe. Empeleni, iningi labantu iTestamente Elidala izingcaphuno ezivela eTestamenteni Elisha kukhona kuyiSeptuagint.

Abagxeki baye waveza, Nokho, ukuthi izincwadi deuterocanonical kungukuthi ocashunwe eTestamenteni Elisha, kodwa ke futhi banjalo eziningana izincwadi ze-non-amaKatolika ukwamukela, njenge Abahluleli, Incwadi EyokuQala YeziKronike, UNehemiya, UmShumayeli, IsiHlabelelo SeziHlabelelo, IsiLilo, Obadiya, nabanye. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngisho noma eTestamenteni Elisha alikhulumi ngokuqondile ngezinqubo ucaphune amabhuku deuterocanonical, ke ubhekisela kubo emavesini ahlukahlukene (qhathanisa ikakhulukazi kaPawulu Incwadi eya kumaHebheru 11:35 nabo Book Second of Maccabees 7:29; futhi Mathewu 27:43 kanye Ukuhlakanipha 2:17-18; Mathewu 6:14-15 kanye Sirach 28:2; Mathewu 7:12 kanye Tobit 4:15; kanye Uhlelo lomlawuli 10:26 kanye Ukuhlakanipha 7:1).

Image of a painting of the Apotheosis of Christ by Gerald DavidIminyaka yasekuqaleni kwawo-abaholi lamaProthestani sinqatshiwe-Septuagint, iSonto iTestamente Elidala, esivuna a uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli akhiqizwa Palestine, okuyinto lishiye amabhuku deuterocanonical. Le mithetho yasungulwa yiqembu Orabi edolobhaneni Jamnia maqondana ekupheleni A.D. ekhulu lokuqala, neminyaka emibili kuya angamakhulu amathathu umhla-Septuagint.

Kubonakala ukuthi abasunguli amaProtestani bakuthola kunenzuzo ukwenqaba-Septuagint ngoba imibhalo deuterocanonicals lesekela imfundiso yamaKatolika. Ngokuqondile, bathatha ukuphikisana Book Second of Maccabees 12:45-46, elibonisa ukuthi amaJuda asendulo wathandazela abafileyo.

Ngokuphawulekayo, UMartin Luther wathatha isinyathelo sokuhlanganyela ligxeke nedlanzana okusha-iTestamente izincwadi ngezizathu nezimfundiso kanye. Udelele Incwadi kaJakobe, Ngokwesibonelo, ngoba imfundiso yalo "ukuthi umuntu ulungisiswa ngemisebenzi, hhayi ngokholo lodwa" (2:24). Ngaphezu kwe James, alibiza ngokuthi "incwadi utshani,"ULuther akazange avume lapho Incwadi Okwesibili kaPetru, the Second futhi Izincwadi yesithathu kaJohane, Saint kaPawulu Incwadi eya kumaHebheru, kanye Incwadi yesAmbulo.

ISonto LamaKatolika uyavuma igunya IBhayibheli Elingcwele sika, Nokho engawuboni akubheka ngayo njengoba isoli igunya, njengoba kwenza Luther.

hlonipho zeSonto ngoba iBhayibheli ngokomlando akunakuphikwa.

Ngemva kokumiswa Canon, Pope Damasus ethunywe Saint Jerome (d. 420), isazi enkulu waseBhayibhelini bosuku lwakhe futhi mhlawumbe sonke isikhathi, ukuhumusha iBhayibheli olimini lwesiLatini ukuze ifundwe kuwo wonke umhlaba jikelele.1

IBhayibheli walondolozwa eNkathini Ephakathi ngu izindela zamaKatolika, ngubani yakhiqizwa ngesandla incwadi eyodwa ke ngesikhathi. Izingxenye zeBhayibheli zokuqala olimini lwesiNgisi nguSanta Bede le uVenerable, umpristi ongumKatolika, ekhulwini lesishiyagalombili.

Lezi zincwadi zeBhayibheli wehlukaniswe tehluko e 1207 uStefanu Langton, iSonto uMbhishobhi Omkhulu waseCanterbury. Eyokuqala ephrintiwe weBhayibheli wabhalwa emhlabeni 1452 uJohann Gutenberg, umsunguli Catholic zomthofu. IBhayibheli likaGutenberg ehlanganisa izincwadi deuterocanonical njengoba kwenza yasekuqaleni agunyaziwe noma King James Version 1611.

IBhayibheli lahunyushelwa ngengozi yokulawulwa yiSonto LamaKatolika ku-German futhi eziningi nezinye izilimi kahle ngaphambi kwesikhathi kaLuther. Empeleni, Kevin Orlin Johnson waphawula encwadini yakhe, Kungani amaKatolika Ingabe Lokho?

"Le ncwadi endala German kwanoma yiluphi uhlobo kuyinto inguqulo yeBhayibheli kwenziwe 381 ngu indela okuthiwa Ulfilas; wahumushela kube Gothic, okuyinto lokho German kwaba ngaleso sikhathi. Ujwayele ukuzwa ukuthi uMartin Luther waba ngowokuqala khulula iBhayibheli kusukela bamba iSonto kanye awunikeze abantu imiBhalo-babulawa, kodwa lokho ngokusobala umbhedo. Njengoba Ulfilas, sekube engaphezu kwenkulungwane iminyaka kwamaBhayibheli ngezinye izilimi German-wesandla, futhi okungenani amabili nanye ephrintiwe edishini German (by ukubala Cardinal Gibbon sika) ngaphambi Luther. " (Kungani amaKatolika Ingabe Lokho?, Ballantine Izincwadi, 1995, p. 24, n.)

Image of a painting of the Transfiguration of Christ by Paolo VeroneseNjengawo wonke amaKristu, AmaKatolika wethembele uMoya oNgcwele isiqondiso ekuchazeni umBhalo; nangengqondo esiyingqayizivele, nakuba, ukuthi uMoya usebenza ngokusebenzisa imoto eBandla (bheka John 14:26 futhi 16:13). UMoya khaphi Magisterium iSonto e ngahluleki kuhunyushwa imiBhalo, njengoba nje ukuze aqondise abalobi engcwele infallibly ubhala ke.

Abaningi ababesekudingisweni abangebona amaKatolika bavame ukubona abanye abantu babhekwe njengabezinye igunya zeSonto njengabaphuma ephikisana igunya likaNkulunkulu, kodwa uKristu waqinisekisa Church, "Lowo ozwa wena uyezwa, futhi lowo uyakwala ukuba ungabe ongalayo, futhi, umuntu obonisa ukunganaki kimi iyamlahla ongithumileyo " (Luka 10:16). Ngakho, igunya likaNkulunkulu ngeke zihlukaniswe uzisuse egunyeni iBandla Lakhe. Kristu ungumthombo igunya iSonto kanye njengoba leli gunya livela kuYe kumelwe obonwa bonke abalandeli baKhe futhi emlalela.

Nakuba abaningi bethi ulandele egunyeni leBhayibheli, iqiniso ngendaba iwona, ngoba abaningi lokho iBhayibheli elikushoyo kuxhomeke incazelo yomuntu ngokwakhe yomuntu.

Saint uPetru waxwayisa, Nokho, "Ukuthi kasikho isiprofetho sombhalo esivela iyindaba incazelo komuntu siqu, ngoba kasikho isiprofetho wake weza ungacabanganga yomuntu, kodwa amadoda beqhutshwa nguMoya oNgcwele bakhuluma okuvela kuNkulunkulu " (ukubona yakhe Incwadi Second 1:20-21; Ukugcizelela wanezela). UPetru wathi futhi, ebhekise izincwadi zikaPawulu, ukuthi "Kunezinto kuzo okunzima ukuziqonda, lapho twist abangenalwazi engazinzile kube ukubhujiswa kwabo, njengalokhu benze njalo nangezinye neminye imibhalo. Wena-ke, othandekayo, njengokuba nazi lokhu ngaphambili, xwayani, ukuze ningadukiswa wathumba nge isiphambeko amadoda abangenamthetho futhi ulahlekelwe ekuqineni kwenu, " (futhi kaPetru Incwadi Second 3:16-17).

Ngenxa yaleso sizathu, AmaKatolika bayabonga engu-cishe-2,000 we, isiko esingaguquguquki incazelo nokuqonda.

  1. "Nakuba wonke uMbuso WaseRoma subsisted eYurophu, kufundwa imiBhalo ngolimi Latin, okwakukhona ngolimi jikelele umbuso, lanqoba yonke indawo,"Lo uMfundisi Charles Buck, a nabangewona amaKatolika, wavuma ("IBhayibheli" i-Theological Dictionary; Patrick F. O'Hare, The Facts About Luther, rev. ed., Rockford, Illinois: Tan Amabhuku Abashicileli, Inc., 1987, p. 182). Pope Damasus kwase imiBhalo elihunyushwe olimini lwesiLatini, ngolimi jikelele bosuku lwakhe, ngenxa yesizathu esifanayo amaKristu wesimanje–njengathi–baye wenza imiBhalo yaba yinto lutholakala ku-inthanethi: ukuze abantu abaningi ngangokunokwenzeka angahle abe nokufinyelela kubo.