Kucatshangwa Mary

Image of the Death of the Virgin by Duccio di Buoninsegna

Ukufa Virgin by Duccio di Buoninsegna

Isiphetho kusengaphambili kuyinkolelo yokuthi uMariya, esiphethweni sokuphila kwakhe kwasemhlabeni, sathathwa umzimba nomphefumulo ezulwini. It is iboniswa amavesi ahlukahlukene zemiBhalo, Cishe iningi ngokucace e IsAmbulo 12, futhi bakholwa amaKristu okuqala, njengoba kuboniswa zaso yasendulo nemibhalo. Mhlawumbe ubufakazi obukhulu kunabo bonke komlando Assumption, nakuba, ukuthi akukho muntu noma umphakathi owake ayethi angabalandeli ifa umzimba kaMariya.1 Omunye singaqiniseka ukuthi kwadingeka isidumbu Mary, kakhulu ophakemeyo the Saints, wahlala emhlabeni, abalandeli bakaKristu bekuzoba kahle kakhulu.

Kukhona kwenzeke ukuba zinkolelo ezimbili ezahlukene mayelana nendawo kusishiya kaMariya: omunye nokukhomba eJerusalema; omunye Efesu. Of the ezimbili, isiko zangaphambili mdala futhi kangcono kugomela. Ngokuthakazelisayo ngokwanele, ethinini, ethuneni ekhulu lokuqala kwatholakala ngesikhathi kumbiwa endaweni kusishiya wakhe eJerusalema ngo 1972 (bheka Bellarmino Bagatti, Michael Piccirillo, futhi Albert Prodomo, O.F.M., Discoveries New ETHUNENI of the Virgin Mary in iGetsemane, IJerusalema: Franciscan Printing Press, 1975). Ezinye izazi ziye bangabaza ubuqiniso leli thuna kusukela kwakungasebenzeki okukhulunywa ngayo Obaba ekuseni ababehlala Palestine, ezifana Cyril eJerusalema (d. 386), Epiphanius (d. 403), futhi Jerome (d. 420). Kodwa, njengoba Archeologist Bellarmino Bagatti waveza, Ethuneni kaMariya yayibizwa ngokuvamile kugwenywe amaKristu okuqala imvelaphi wabeZizwe ngoba wema impahla elisetshenziswa amaJuda namaKristu, ngubani “babebhekwa njengabangakufanelekeli schismatics uma kungenjalo kubabhazuki” (ibid., p. 15). Ngesizathu esifanayo, amanye amasayithi engcwele, ezifana Room Upper, awaveli emibhalweni akuqala (ibid.). Kufanele kukhunjulwe kanye ukuthi amabutho wamaRoma uJenene Titus aqedwe eJerusalema ngomnyaka 70, wafihla izindawo ezingcwele ukuba zobuJuda nobuKristu ngaphansi kwale moto. In 135, Umbusi Hadrian aphinde kuqondiswa umuzi ngenhloso express wokwakha emathempelini amaqaba phezu amanxiwa sites engcwele. The ibala kusishiya kanye nezinye izindawo kaMariya ezingcwele wahlala elahlekile aze ngekhulu lesine okungenani lapho uMbusi uConstantine Omkhulu kancane kancane waqala ukubuyisela kumasayithi WobuKristu olungcwele, uthome Lethuna Elingcwele 336.] Isiphetho inikeza isibonelo umfundi kaKristu ukumlandela uvuko somzimba, ekhomba eyenzekayo lapho wonke amaKristu ithemba. Ekugcineni, it kufakazela hhayi ubungcwele wakhe, Ngaphezu kwalokho, kodwa ebungcweleni uJesu, kabani wathola prerogatives ekhethekile.

Nakuba iye njalo bakholelwa amaKristu, kweNyuka kwaba yamemezela ngokusemthethweni Ngumbhedesho of the Catholic Church uPapa Pius XII ngo 1950. Ngokuqinisekile umuntu angabona ukuhlakanipha kukaNkulunkulu kothando e evuma ekuvukeni kaMariya somzimba emhlabeni ngesikhathi midpoint of leminyaka sifakazelwa ukungabi nabulungisa okuningi kangaka ethuneni ngokumelene isithunzi nobuntu. Ngesikhathi isimemezelo esithi imfundiso kaZiqu sika, izwe eliphuma ezethusayo emakamu okufa amaNazi futhi ngokushesha esondela nokubulawa isimo-avikelwe wengane ongakazalwa. The ukuhlonipheka wesifazane nomsebenzi wakhe induna umama aye ikakhulukazi baye bahlaselwa umphakathi wanamuhla, eye egxile ngokweqile phezu ubuhle wakhe yangaphandle futhi wafuna phakade ukunciphisa wakhe into nenkanuko. Ngokuphambene kakhulu kulezi izimemezelo isiko ukufa, KweNyuka kaMariya usho isithunzi womanhood kanye zomzimba womuntu, nobuntu, ngendlela enamandla.

Ascension of the Virgin by Albrecht iziqubu

Ascension of the Virgin by Albrecht iziqubu

The lemfundiso kaZiqu kweNyuka imboza igunya iSonto ukuba ondle izimvu zikaKristu (cf. John 21:15-17; Luka 10:16) futhi isithembiso yethu noMsindisi ukuthi iBandla kwakhe ukufundisa iqiniso (cf. John 14:26; 16:13; Matt. 16:18-19; 1 Tim. 3:15). Leli gunya ngahluleki bezilokhu omethembayo ukuba sibikezele imfundiso yeqiniso lapho izingxabano ivukile phakathi abathembekile. Sibona lokhu kokukhethwa koMkhandlu eJerusalema (IzEnzo 15); e ukufuna kaPawulu zabaPhostoli’ imvume yokushumayela kwakhe kweminyaka eminingi ngemva kokuguqulwa kwakhe (Gal. 2:1-2); futhi izenzo yokugcina Councils WamaSonto, lapho wamemezela ukuthi uKristu unguNkulunkulu in 325, ungowaphezulu uMoya oNgcwele in 381, futhi womama Mary yaphezulu e 431.

Ngasohlangothini lwezenkolo, kweNyuka lihlobene eduze the Conception Immaculate, othi uMariya, by a umusa okhethekile ovela kuNkulunkulu, Wasindiswa kusukela ibala lesono sokuqala kusukela mzuzu wokuqala wempilo yakhe. Inkululeko yakhe esonweni kuyincazelo esithembisweni sikaNkulunkulu phezu Fall of Man ukubeka ubutha phakathi uSathane kanye uMama uMhlengi (Gen. 3:15). Ukuya emuva ngezikhathi zabaphostoli, iBandla ohlonishwayo kuMariya njengoba New Eva, helpmate abathembekile New Adam. Njengoba nje Eva lokuqala bakholwa amanga kaSathane, ingelosi esewile, futhi ngokwala ubukhosi plan kaNkulunkulu kwaletha isono nokufa ezweni; ngakho New Eva wakholwa amaqiniso Gabriel, lengelosi enkulu, futhi by ubambisana icebo likaNkulunkulu kwasindisa nokuphila ezweni. Lapho becabanga kuMariya njengoba New Eva, Ngaphezu kwalokho, siza uqaphele ukuthi orchestrating ukuhlengwa kwethu, UNkulunkulu ngendlela ngokumangalisayo ongokoqobo uhlehlele izenzakalo ukuwa yethu. Ekuqaleni, Ngokwesibonelo, Adam wafika kuqala; futhi uEva akadalwanga evela inyama yakhe. In the ukuhlengwa, Mary, the New Eva, wafika kuqala; futhi uKristu, the New Adam, Kwamiswa yenyama yakhe. Kwaziqondanela nje, lokhu kungani eSivumelwaneni New owesifazane futhi lowo muntu umama nendodana, hhayi bomshado njengoba u-Adamu no-Eva waba.

Lokho Mary abakhwelwe ubumsulwa Eva ngaphambi kokuwa kusho kade cishe owasala esijezisweni yayo: ngemihelo futhi basiphe nokufa (cf. Gen. 3:16, 19; Rom. 6:23). Ngisho uma kungenjalo angabi khona lezi zinto ngokuphelele, Nokho, kuyafaneleka okungenani ukuthi umusa ongavamile banikwa wakhe uma bebeletha kanye ekufeni.2

Wokugcotshwa the Virgin by oweZizwe da Fabriano

Corontion of the Virgin by oweZizwe da Fabriano

Like ekuphumeni izidumbu abangcwele emva ubethelwa esiphambanweni (cf. Matt. 27:52), kweNyuka kuyinto eyandulela ngokuvuka zezitho ethembekile ngoSuku Lokwahlulela, lapho kuyakuba “ingagxili … emafwini, sihlangabeze iNkosi emoyeni” (1 Thessalia. 4:17).3 IBhayibheli alikhulumi abaphikisa nomqondo nokucabanga somzimba ezulwini. In umBhalo, Enoch futhi Eliya bathatheke somzimba ezulwini (cf. Gen. 5:24; 2 Khos. 2:11; Yiba. 11:5). Kuyiqiniso ukuthi iBhayibheli alikhulumi ngokucacile usuchaza ukuthi uMariya assumed. Nokho uphawu efanayo, iBhayibheli akaphiki noma eziphikisana kweNyuka wakhe.4 Ngaphezu kwalokho, kanti akhawunti eqondile kweNyuka ayitholakali emBhalweni, kungase kube bazinqumela ezindimeni ezithile mayelana uMphongolo wesivumelwano, uhlobo Mary. Lo mkhumbi kwakufanele ezenziwe ngokhuni engenakonakala wanameka ngegolide elihlanzekile ngenxa ubungcwele izinto wayeklanyelwe ukuba baphathe futhi (cf. Ex. 25:10-11); ngokufanayo Virgin wanikwa inkululeko ubumsulwa ngokomoya ngokomzimba nakonakala belungiselela sithela iNdodana kaNkulunkulu. Lokho umzimba kaMariya incorrupt, Umphongolo Wesivumelwano Esisha, abayokuya ezulwini kuvezwa IHubo 132:8, othi, “Vuka, O Nkosi, futhi uye endaweni yakho yokuphumula, wena nomphongolo wamandla akho.” Ukuthi Old-Covenant Ark engaqondakali wanyamalala ngesikhathi esithile emlandweni kufanekisela kanye kweNyuka Our Lady sika.5 Umkhumbi engcwele bahlala ezifihliwe eminyaka kuze Umphostoli uJohane ubanjwe amazwibela sezulwini, njengoba echaza e IsAmbulo: “Khona ithempeli likaNkulunkulu ezulwini lavuleka, kanye nomphongolo wesivumelwano sakhe usendlini phakathi ethempelini lakhe … . Futhi ibika enkulu uvele ezulwini, owesifazane embethe ilanga, ne inyanga ngaphansi kwezinyawo zakhe futhi ekhanda lakhe umqhele wezinkanyezi eziyishumi nambili” (11:19, 12:1). Umbono kaJohane Mother of uMhlengi somzimba ehlala pharadesi iwukuphela kumele kulandisa umuntu owazibonela ngawakhe kweNyuka. Uyaqhubeka ukuchaza ukuthi wayekade wenyuselwa ezulwini Ascension yeNkosi. “Ingane yakhe,” Uthi, “wabanjwa up kuNkulunkulu nasesihlalweni sakhe sobukhosi, futhi owesifazane wabalekela ehlane, lapho enendawo khona ayilungiselelwe uNkulunkulu, lapho ukuze sondleke for yinkulungwane namakhulu amabili namashumi ayisithupha” (12:5-6). Ngokufanayo uthi, “Lo wesifazane wanikwa amaphiko amabili okhozi olukhulu, ukuze andizele enyokeni ehlane, endaweni ahlala kuyo ukuze sondleke okwesikhathi, futhi izikhathi, nenxenye yesikhathi” (12:14).6

The bokuqala imibhalo esekhona kucatshangwa kukhona imibhalo ehlukahlukene Apocrypha futhi pseudoepigraphical, ewa phansi kwesihloko jikelele Ukudlula Virgin Mary noma Esifitjhani Mary. The endala yalezi, Kukholakala ukuthi zalotshwa phakathi nekhulu lesibili by Leucius Karinus, umfundi of John, kucatshangwa ukuthi isekelwe phezu incwadi yokuqala kusukela enkathini yabaphostoli, okuyinto ayisekho esekhona.7

Inkolelo okuqala zeSonto ukuthi Virgin Blessed kwaba incorrupt emzimbeni nasemphefumulweni ngokuphelele isekela kweNyuka. The engaziwa Incwadi eya Diognetus (cf. 125), Ngokwesibonelo, umbiza njengoba Virgin ukuthi akanakukhohliswa.8 Empeleni, abalobi abaningi basendulo, ephawuleka kakhulu Saints Justin the Martyr (d. ca. 165) futhi Irenaeus waseLyons (d. ca. 202), ziqhathaniswa uMariya in fidelity wakhe u-Eva sinfulness wakhe. Saint uHippolytus of Rome (d. 235), umfundi Ireneaus, kuqhathaniswa inyama sikaMariya the “lezigodo ongenakonakala” yoMphongolo (Commentary on IHubo 22). The Ngaphansi Thy Umthandazo, wabhalwa cishe maphakathi nekhulu le-third, ubiza Mary “okuhlanzekile yedwa futhi yedwa wambusisa.”

In Saint-Efrayimi the sika umSiriya Hymns on kukaJesu, kusukela ngekhulu maphakathi nawo-wesine, usebenzisa izithombe uyakhumbula IsAmbulo 12:4, Kubonakala uMariya ukuba abikezele nokuhanjiswa umzimba wakhe ezulwini, wathi, “The Babe ukuthi mina baphathe uye wangithwala … . Waguqa phansi kwamaphiko wakhe wathatha ungilinge phakathi kwamaphiko akhe futhi sathandwa emoyeni” (17:1). In 377, Saint Epiphanius eSalami wabhala, “Indlela ngeke uMariya ongcwele ifa lombuso wezulu ngenyama yakhe, kusukela wayengeyena unchaste, noma antule, futhi akazange yena nanini bophezela phinga, futhi kusukela akakaze wenza lutho olubi kuze kufike izenzo ongokwenyama bakhathazekile, kodwa wahlala engagqwali?” (Panarion 42:12). Abanye baye basikisela wayengabhekiseli bakholwa kweNyuka ngoba uqambela lapha somzimba yokungena kaMariya ezulwini lesitako. Nokho yathi kamuva kulo mqulu efanayo, “Uma yena wabulawa, … ke wathola inkazimulo ndawonye felukholo, futhi umzimba wakhe … uhlala phakathi kwalabo ukujabulela Phumula of the ubusisiwe” (ibid. 78:23; Ukugcizelela wanezela). Ngokuqagela ukufa kwakhe, Waqhubeka sithi mhlawumbe

yena washona noma akazange afe, … wembelwa noma cha wangcwatshwa. … UmBhalo umane buthule, ngenxa nangobukhulu prodigy, ukuze ashaye ingqondo yomuntu wonder ngokweqile. …

Uma Virgin engcwele ufile futhi iye wangcwatshwa, ngokuqinisekile dominion wakhe kwenzeka udumo olukhulu; ekugcineni kwaba ocwengeke kakhulu futhi egcotshwa ngo virginit. …

Noma yena waqhubeka ephila. Ukuze, uNkulunkulu, akusiyo into engenakwenzeka ukuba enze konke esathanda; Ngokolunye uhlangothi, akekho owaziyo ngempela ukuthi ukuphela kwakhe kwaba (ibid. 78:11, 23).

Lokho Epiphanius angazanga imininingwane Ukudlula kaMariya kuyaqondakala ngokuphelele–AmaKristu namanje abazi imininingwane kwalo futhi cishe kuba abaphostoli bona babengazi ukuthi noma, umzimba wakhe wasuswa ngaphakathi ethuneni ebiyelwe.9 Ngokungafani nezinye abalobi bokuqala bezenkolo, Nokho, Epiphanius kugwenywe ukuziqambela imininingwane for ngokwakhe. Nakuba akazange azi kahle ukuthi okwakwenzeke, wayazi, ekukhanyeni wobungcwele kaMariya ephelele, ukuthi Ukudlula kwakhe kwadingeka ukuba bebelokhu ngokuyisimangaliso–into obungenza “ushaye ingqondo yomuntu wonder ngokweqile”–nokuthi 'wayengaba lihlale ethuneni. “In the Apocalypse of John,” waveza, “sifunda ukuthi udrako wajikijela ngokwakhe owesifazane esezele umntwana womfana; kodwa okhozi zanikwa owesifazane, futhi yena landizela ehlane, lapho udrako wangamthola. Lokhu kwakungaba kwenzeka kukaMariya (Rev. 12:13-14)” (ibid. 78:11).

Ekuqaleni kwekhulu lesihlanu leminyaka, noma ekuqaleni, umkhosi kukhunjulwa Mary–leyo, kukhunjulwa Ukudlula kwakhe–ayiswa Eastern Inkonzo, ngesizotha phakathi endala izinsuku umkhosi ezisemthethweni iSonto.10 Around the ngonyaka 400, Chrysippus eJerusalema amazwana on IHubo 132, “The Ark bobukhosi bangempela, uMphongolo eyigugu kunazo, kwaba njalo-Virgin LaseTheotokos; uMphongolo elithole engcebweni yonke ukungcweliswa” (On IHubo 131(132)).

Umlobi Orthodox kusukela ngalesi sikhathi esifanayo, ukusebenza ngaphansi ipeni igama of Saint uMelito waseSardesi, a eduze-owayephila Leucius, lahlanjalazwa ngokubona “wonakalisa umbhalo kakhulu zasendulo echaza imibono yakhe siqu lapho bengavumelani nemfundiso babaPostoli” (Bagatti, et al., p. 11). Lo mlobi bazama ukuvuselela akhawunti weqiniso of the kweNyuka, lapho esola Leucius kwadingeka “wonakalisa ngepeni okubi” (Ngokudluliswa Virgin Holy, Prologue).

Cishe 437, Saint Quodvultdeus wabalula esivelele Woman in IsAmbulo 12 njengoba Virgin Blessed, kokuphawula, “Makungabikho noyedwa kini indiva (iqiniso) udrako (e-Apocalypse of the umphostoli uJohane) nguSathane; bazi ukuthi intombi lisho uMariya, lowo ezihlanzekile, ngubani owazala ikhanda simsulwa” (homily Third 3:5).

Cishe maphakathi nekhulu lwesihlanu, Saint Hesychius kweJerusalema wabhala, “The Ark of ukungcweliswa yakho, laseTheotokos Virgin ngokuqinisekile. Uma wena iparele ke kumelwe abe uMphongolo” (Homily on uMariya Holy, UNina kaNkulunkulu). Around 530, Oecumenius wathi IsAmbulo 12, “Sazise Umbono ngimbonise ezulwini hhayi emhlabeni, njengoba okuhlanzekile nomphefumulo nomzimba” (Commentary on the Apocalpyse). Ukubhala of the kweNyuka eduze ekupheleni kwekhulu lesithupha, Saint uGregory Tours (ngokungafani Ephiphanius) akazange ukugwema imininingwane ohambisana of the Yokuwela Indaba. “Futhi bheka,” wabhala Gregory, “futhi iNkosi yema ngakuye (Abaphostoli); umzimba engcwele (of Mary) kokunikwa wathola, Wayala ukuthi zithathwe ngefu zibe yipharadesi” (Amabhuku Eight of Miracles 1:4).

Abagxeki izimfundiso zeSonto Marian baye benza okuningi lokuthi akhawunti bokuqala-eyaziwayo kweNyuka zitholakala Apocrypha, nokuthi oFata beSonto akazange akhulume phambi kwekhulu nane.

Kuyinto futhi kuyiqiniso, Nokho, ukuthi Obaba awazange abheke ukulungisa ukukholelwa kweNyuka; bamane wathula ngale ndaba–ekhetha engakaze ibonwe uma le mfundiso yezihlubuki, ikakhulu nokudlanga yayo phakathi abathembekile. It akunakwenzeka, ngempela, ukuthi umqondo kweNyuka kaMariya, lapho isekela ngobungcwele umzimba womuntu, wayengase owasungula phakathi Gnostic, kulokho baphikisa umzimba futhi konke ngokomzimba. The Apocrypha, Empeleni, zazivame hhayi umsebenzi kubabhazuki, kodwa amaKristu Orthodox efuna ukuphoqelela imininingwane phezu nezenzakalo zangempela ekuphileni kukaKristu kanye Saints ukuthi base ngenye oyimfihlakalo. Nakuba apocryphists wanezelwa indaba kweNyuka, abazange benze it. Iqiniso lokuthi Yokuwela yayikhona cishe yonke indawo emhlabeni yobuKristu, kokuvela ngezilimi eziningi, kuhlanganise Hebrew, Greek, IsiLatin, WesiCoptic, Syriac, Ethipic, futhi Arabic, ebonisa indaba kweNyuka kaMariya yahlakazeka yonke emakhulwini okuqala eminyaka futhi, Ngakho, imvelaphi yabaphostoli.

Nakuba iSonto owake waba siqaphele ingozi abathintekayo ukuthembela phezu kwemisebenzi a nature ezikhohlisayo, ayikwazi waphika ukuthi imbewu ka iqiniso kuyovama imisebenzi eminingi enjalo. Khumbula, Ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi Saint Jude libhekisela Kucatshangwa kaMose futhi Okokuqala Enoch e Testament yakhe New Incwadi (bheka Jude 1:9, 14 ff.). Origin ngokuhlakanipha waphawula:

Asibi unaware ukuthi eziningi zalezi imibhalo secret zakhiqizwa amadoda, odumile ngenxa yobubi babo. … Ngakho-ke kumelwe uqaphele ukuze samukele zonke lezi imibhalo imfihlo ukuthi aluka ngaphansi igama abangcwele … ngoba abanye babo zalotshwa ukubhubhisa iqiniso zemiBhalo yethu futhi sigcizelele imfundiso engamanga. Ngokolunye uhlangothi, akufanele bakulahle ngokuphelele imibhalo engase ibe usizo esikhathini esikhanyisela umBhalo. It kuwuphawu umuntu omkhulu ukuzwa futhi afeze iseluleko zemiBhalo: “Konke Test; gcina okuhle” (1 Thessalia. 5:21) (Commentaries on Mathewu 28).

In 494, Pope Saint Gelasius, befuna ukuba aqaphe nothembekile omelene ithonya engase onakalisayo of the imibhalo yenkolo eziningi abalobi engabazekayo esahlupha emhlabeni Christian, ikhishwe ohlwini lwezincwadi ezakha iBhayibheli lwentiwe eyandulela wakhe, Saint Clement, oluhambisana ibhuku eside neyamukelekayo akwamukeleki nezincwadi ezengeziwe-kweBhayibheli.

Abaphikisi eBandla baye waphakamisa impikiswano iqiniso lokuthi wokubhala e-Apocrypha kucatshangwa uphakathi izincwadi esasenqatshelwe Gelasius’ decre, kodwa uPapa akakuvumeli ukufuna i-akhawunti Apocrypha kweNyuka, kunjalo, futhi hhayi Assumption uqobo.

Akhawunti Apocrypha zabanye izinkolelo Orthodox nazo akulahlwa isimemezelo–the Protoevangelium kaJakobe, Ngokwesibonelo, isebenzelana kukaJesu; kanye Izenzo Peter isebenzelana sikaPetru umsebenzi wezithunywa zevangeli nokufel 'ukholo eRoma. Nakakhulu kuze kube seqophelweni, okwalotshwa uTertullian ziyavalwa, nakuba imibhalo yakhe, Ngokwesibonelo, bamane unelungelo Ubhapathizo futhi Ukuphenduka, ukuvikela isikhundla Orthodox ngalezi zindaba. Ingabe Gelasius’ akhuza lezi zincwadi neze ukuthi ukulahlwa Ubhapathizo nokuphenduka, ke, noma ingabe ukwenza okwengeziwe nge umbuzo uhlamvu kaTertullian?

Ngokusobala, sokuvimbela incwadi Isinqumo Gelasian ngeke kusathiwa ukwenqatshwa wholesale kwencwadi ethi Isiprofetho Sika subject udaba noma okuqukethwe. Ezimweni eziningi, scholarship ngaphezulu kuzodingeka by iBandla uhlunga izinto ezilimazayo ngempela kulezi zincwadi. Okwamanje, okuwenza aqondane ngaphansi kokuvinjelwa, oqondileyo unikezwa ukungaqiniseki eziwazungezile.11

Ukuze labo abafuna ukuthola Isinqumo Gelasian abanye ukuhlehla naphutha Papal, kufanele wachaza ukuthi sokuvimbela incwadi akuhlangene kanye naphutha the Pope kusukela imane izinyathelo, engahlangene UKUCHAZISISA umqondo wemfundiso. By nature, a izinyathelo zokuqondisa izigwegwe kuncike ushintsho. Kusobala endaweni kuphela ukuze nje usongo waqonda ukhona; uma usongo isidlulile, the sola siphakeme. Kulesi simo, njengoba nohlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli sakhula ekuthandweni usongo Apocrypha kwancipha futhi ukuvinjelwa yayingasasebenzi.

  1. Lokhu kuwubufakazi ongavamile inikezwe Ukuthanda ubuKristu lokulondoloza futhi ukuhlonipha izinsalela saintly ngempela–umkhuba lapho kuhlehlela emuva ekuqaleni ukholo njengoba Martyrdom of Saint Polycarp, wabhalwa phakathi nekhulu lesibili, imibukiso.
  2. Nakuba amaKatolika aye ngokwesiko bakholwa uMariya angayikhokhi ngemihelo, liye engabe ukuthi ngempela sihlupheke ukufa ukuze ngokuphelele izivumelanise iNdodana yakhe, ngubani nakuba ayengenasono eyamukelekayo ukufa (cf. Phil. 2:5 ff.). In belinganisa lemfundiso kaZiqu-kweNyuka, Pius XII kugwenywe wathi ngokuqinisekile ifile, nje ukusho ayenakho “igcwaliswe inkambo yokuphila kwakhe kwasemhlabeni” (UNkulunkulu ophanayo 44).
  3. The Catechism of the Catholic Church lifundisa, “Isiphetho we Virgin Ubusisiwe a iqhaza asebunyeni Vuko iNdodana yakhe futhi ilukuluku ngokuvuka namanye amaKristu … . Yena kakade amasheya e inkazimulo Vuko iNdodana yakhe, silindele ukuvuka wonke amalungu eNdikimba yakhe” (966, 974).
  4. Zikhona nezinye izenzakalo eziphawulekayo ekuphileni we Apostolic Church okuyinto ivinjelwe lezi zincwadi eTestamenteni Elisha kanye, ezifana martyrdoms uPetru noPawulu, futhi ukubhujiswa kweJerusalema libhujiswa amabutho amaRoma ngomnyaka 70. Ngokusho LukaMuratori uCezu, wabhalwa eRoma engxenyeni yokugcina yekhulu lesibili, Luka kuphela abahlanganiswe Uhlelo lomlawuli Izehlakalo, kwase ngamehlo akhe siqu. Lokho Luka kugwenywe lokubhala ngezinto ayesenesikhathi empeleni akubone kusisiza ukuba siqonde ukuthi kungani kweNyuka kwaba akumelanga irekhodwe, ngoba kwenzeka ngaphakathi ethuneni. Ngokungafani enyukele weNkosi, umcimbi womphakathi esabonwa eziningi, kweNyuka babengenaso bokuzibonela.
  5. Maccabees Second 2:5 uthi uJeremiya uphawu uMphongolo womhume eNtabeni yaseNebo ngaphambi behlasela iJerusalema ngo 587 B.C. (cf. 2 Khos. 24:13, et al.).
  6. KobuProthestani ivame ukubona lokhu Woman njengoba noma a figure ongokomfanekiso ka-Israyeli noma iSonto (cf. Gen. 37:9). Catholicism Wamukela lezi Izincazelo, kodwa abonise ukuba afake ngendlela ethize Mary, samuntu abantu bakaNkulunkulu. Israyeli babebizwa uKristu ngokomfanekiso; Mary wamzalela ngokoqobo. Lapho sikhulumela la mavesi aku, Saint Quodvultdeus (d. 453), the Bishop waseCarthage kanye ngumfundi Saint Augustine, wabhala ukuthi uMariya “futhi ehlanganiswe ngokwakhe figure of the elingcwele: okungukuthi, indlela lapho ebeletha indodana, yena wahlala eyincasakazi, ukuze ibandla kulo lonke isikhathi uthela emalungwini, kodwa yena akaphelelwa oseyintombi” (Homily Third on the Creed 3:6; bheka futhi uClement wase-Aleksandriya, Instructor we Izingane 1:6:42:1).

    The motif abantu bakaNkulunkulu kungaphumeli “phezu kwamaphiko okhozi” endaweni yesiphephelo ingatholakala kulo lonke iTestamente Elidala (bheka Ex. 19:4; IHu. 54 (55):6-7; Isa. 40:31, et al.). Isithembiso sikaNkulunkulu “ukubalekela ehlane” is ogxile ligcwaliseke kweNyuka, UMariya kokuba onamandla nobaluleke abantu bakhe.

    Ukubhekisela ezingokomfanekiso in IsAmbulo 12 a ubude besikhathi, “yinkulungwane namakhulu amabili namashumi ayisithupha izinsuku” futhi “ngoba isikhathi, futhi izikhathi, nenxenye yesikhathi” (6, 14), angase afanekisele kwenkathi yokushushiswa, lapho iSonto uyohlala kuze kube nini, ngaphambi kwesibili kukaKristu.

    Ivesi 12:17 uSathane uthi, Ethukutheliswe Ukuphunyuka yowesifazane, kubekiwe “ukwenza impi lonke inzalo yakhe, kulabo abagcina imiyalo kaNkulunkulu futhi ninike ubufakazi ngoJesu.” Ukuthi abalandeli bakaKristu zibhekwa “lonke inzalo yakhe” isekela mayelana iSonto for uMariya njengoba unina Wonke amaKristu (cf. Isa. 66:8; John 19:26-27).

  7. Nakuba ngesinye isikhathi Yokuwela Kwakucatshangwa ukuthi wayedabuka akukho ngaphambi kwekhulu wesine, behumusha zemfundiso yenkolo esetshenziswa Leucius’ umqulu ukuqinisekisa ngemvelaphi noma ngekhulu lesibili noma lesithathu (Bagatti, et al., p. 14; Bagatti ebaluliwe imisebenzi yakhe siqu, S. Peter in “Dormition of Mary,” kk. 42-48; Ucwaningo emasikweni kokufa Virgin, kk. 185-214).
  8. Umbhalo langempela ifundeka: “Uma athwale emthini (ulwazi) futhi ukukha izithelo zawo, uyolokhu ebuthana izinto kukhona efiselekayo emehlweni kaNkulunkulu, izinto ukuthi inyoka ayikwazi uthinte nangenkohliso kungemngcolise. Khona-Eva is ukuyenga, kodwa Virgin is atholakale ethembekile” (Incwadi eya Diognetus 12:7-9). Ngokuphathelene naleli vesi, Cyril c. Richardson comments, “It oluphakeme kucace ukuthi umlobi uhlose usho Ngokuphambene ovamile Patristic … phakathi Eva, unina angalaleli ukufa, noMary, unina abalalelayo wokuphila, lapho icala parthenos of the umbhalo kuyoba ubusisiwe Virgin Mary” (Obaba Christian Early, I-New York: Collier Amabhuku, 1970, p. 224, n. 23). Hilda Graef ivumelene, wathi, “It cishe kubonakala sengathi uMariya babebizwa Eva ngaphandle kwencazelo eminye” (Mary: A History of Imfundiso kanye Devotion, vol. 1, I-New York: Sheed and Ward, 1963, p. 38).
  9. Ngokungafani Yokuwela akhawunti, othi Abaphostoli ayefakaza umzimba kaMariya ihanjiswa ezulwini, kukhona isiko ukuthi washona ngo-January 18 (Tobi 21), kodwa ukuthi ithuna lakhe elingenalutho alizange litholakale till 206 izinsuku kamuva August 15 (MESORAH 16) (bheka Graef, Mary, vol. 1, p. 134, n. 1; umbhali ebaluliwe Dom Capelle, Book amaphephandaba Lovanienses 3, 1926, p. 38; M.R. James, The Apocrypha New Testament, 1924, kk. 194-201).
  10. Umkhosi kukaJesu (okuyi, UKhisimuzi) yasungulwa ngo ekuqaleni kwekhulu lesine, phakathi nokubusa Constantine. Umkhosi Ascension yasungulwa ngekhulu lesihlanu, sebezivumisile ekuqaleni kufakwe umkhosi wePhentekoste lika.
  11. Ngale ndlela, the Church ifuze unina ngubani wenqabela izingane zakhe ukuba babukele ethile TV show kuze kuye kwadingeka ithuba ukubukela show futhi ahlulele ekuqukethe yena. The Church owonile njalo ohlangothini sokuqapha ezindabeni onokuqonda zokholo nokuziphatha. Cabanga ukuthi, muva nje, Saints Teresa of Avila (d. 1582) kanye John of the Cross (d. 1591), Manje ohlonishwa njengomholi Doctors of the Church, baphekwe ngemibuzo Yamacala Ezihlubuki phezu amahemuhemu ayekhona ngaye okuhlubuka. Ngokufanayo, idayari of Saint Faustina Kowalska (d. 1938), Mercy Divine in Soul My, kwaba ngesinye isikhathi wasenqaba njengoba heterodox abefundisi Church, kodwa kamuva bamukeleka esemthethweni ngaphansi Pope John Paul Elikhulu. Nezambulo Faustina latfolakala ku idayari, Empeleni, ziye zaholela kweSikole umkhosi Mercy Divine, Manje yonke kugujwa the Church.