Vim li cas cov Bibles txawv?

Image of a painting of the Transfiguration of Christ by Paolo Veronese

Obviously, bibles txawv vim translations, tiam sis muaj dab tsi sib txawv siv ntau, heev, thiab cov uas yuav muaj pes tsawg leeg cov ntawv Vajtswv, feem ntau yog cov lees phau ntawv nyob rau hauv phau qub.

Feem ntau, Catholics thiab lwm cov Christians yuav pom zoo rau cov phau ntawv sau nyob rau hauv Phau Testament tshiab, tab sis lawv debate lub authenticity ntawm xya phau ntawv nyob rau hauv lub Phau qub tias Catholics muaj xws li.

Cov phau ntawv no, hu ua cov deuterocanonical (los yog "canon thib ob") phau ntawv vim tias lawv leej twg yog contested rau ib lub sij hawm. Txawm li cas los, pib thaum uas muaj rau sawv daws hauv lub nroog Loos hauv 382 A.D., uas convened raws li cov cai ntawm cov neeg dawb huv Pope Damasus kuv, lub tsev teev ntuj Kas Thaus Liv tau txais lub validity thiab worthiness ntawm cov phau ntawv, hos lwm cov zej zog Christian tau thiab ua tsis.

Muaj cov phau ntawv:

Cov deuterocanonical phau ntawv muaj nyob rau hauv lub npe nrov Alexandrian Canon, version Greek ntawm tus Phau qub uas ua rau ntawm 250 thiab 100 B.C. Cov canon no yog ua los ntawm XYACAUM Yudais scribes li qhov kev thov ntawm tus Iyiv vaj ntxwv Ptolemy II Philadelphus, uas qhov kev kawm kom tau ib phau ntawm Judaism tus dawb huv phau ntawv txhais ua lus rau txhua lub tuam rau lub tsev qiv ntawv Alexandria caag. Tus uas ua los ntawm cov scribes XYACAUM canon muaj nyob hauv cov yawm tuaj yuav paub tias raws li cov Septuagint tom qab septuagintus, cov lus Latin rau "xyacaum."

Tus Septuagint yog siv ancient Palestine thiab txawm tias tus najnpawb ntawm peb tswv thiab nws cov followers yog. qhov tseeb, feem ntau ntawm cov quotations phau qub uas tshwm hauv Phau Testament tshiab yooj yim nyob rau lub Septuagint.

Critics muaj taw tes qhia, Txawm li cas los, tias cov deuterocanonical phau ntawv no tsis quoted hauv Phau Testament tshiab, tab sis, ces again neither muaj ob peb yam uas tsis yog-Catholics yuav cov phau ntawv, xws li Txwj laus, Thawj phau keeb kwm, Neha-mis, Ecclesiastes, Zaj kwv txhiaj rau Xatau-ntoos, Lamentations, Obadiah, thiab lwm tus. Tas, Txawm hais tias phau Testament tshiab tsis ncaj qha cim cov phau ntawv deuterocanonical, nws alludes lawv nyob rau ntawm daim zajlus ntau (Piv xws pov ntawv Tsab ntawv rau lub Hebrews 11:35 nrog cov Thib ob phau Maccabees 7:29; tseem Matthew 27:43 nrog Txhab 2:17-18; Matthew 6:14-15 nrog Sirach 28:2; Matthew 7:12 nrog Tobit 4:15; thiab cov Cov kev ua rau cov leeg thwj tim 10:26 nrog Txhab 7:1).

Image of a painting of the Apotheosis of Christ by Gerald DavidCov nom tswv Protestant ntxov tso tseg lub Septuagint, cov Catholic phau qub, lawv txhawb txojcai ib canon hauv Palestine ua, cov phau ntawv deuterocanonical omits uas. No canon yog tsim los ntawm ib cov rabbis hauv lub zos ntawm Jamnia ntawm tus thawj xyoo pua A.D. xaus lus, ob tug los peb caug xyoo tom qab dua cov Septuagint.

No mas, tias tus founders ntawm Protestantism nyob nws ib qho kev zoo rau cov kwv cov Septuagint vim ntawm daim zajlus ua tus deuterocanonicals uas yuav pab txhawb Catholic tej lus qhuab qhia. Yeej, lawv muab cov kabke rau ntawm Thib ob phau Maccabees 12:45-46, uas qhia tau hais tias tus ancient neeg Yudais thov Vaj tswv rau cov neeg tuag.

Remarkably, Martin Luther thiaj muab lub kauj ruam ntxiv ntawm condemning lub handful ntawm phau Testament tshiab doctrinal tsuas zoo li phau ntawv. Nws despised cov Daim ntawv tuaj ntawm James, Piv txwv, rau txoj kev qhia "hais tias ib tug txiv neej yog justified tej hauj lwm thiab tsis tau ntseeg ib leeg" (2:24). Nyob James, uas nws hu ua "ib epistle ntawm tej khaub,"Luther kuj tsis lees txais cov Tsab ntawv thib ob ntawm Peter, tus Thib ob thiab Peb cov ntawv ntawm John, Neeg dawb huv Paul Tsab ntawv rau lub Hebrews, thiab cov Phau Revelation.

Lub tsev teev ntuj Kas Thaus Liv acknowledges cai daim ntawv Vajtswv tus dawb huv, tab sis yog nws tsis suav nws ua tus muaj ib tus xwb txoj cai, Thaum twg Luther.

Lub tsev teev ntuj reverence rau cov ntawv Vajtswv dabneeg no undeniable.

Raws li lub tsev lag luam uas tus Canon, Pope Damasus commissioned Jerome neeg dawb huv (d. 420), qhov loj tshaj biblical kws ntawv nws hnub thiab kab tias txhua lub sij hawm, los txhais cov ntawv Vajtswv ua Latin kom nws yuav tsum nyeem universally.1

Ntawv Vajtswv lub yog fwm los ntawm cov muaj hnub nyoog hauv nruab nrab ntawm cov Catholic monks, leej tswv cuab nws yog xuas tes ntxuav ib tsab ntawv ntawm ib lub sij hawm. Khej txog tus ntawv Vajtswv twb xub txhais ua lus Askiv yog neeg dawb huv Bede lub Venerable, ib tug txiv neeb Catholic, nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua eighth.

Cov phau ntawv los ntawm cov ntawv Vajtswv twb faib ua chapters hauv 1207 by Stephen Langton, tus kav thaus liv Archbishop Canterbury. Tus thawj tsab ntawv Vajtswv nyob ua ib ncig 1452 yog Johann Gutenberg, cov Catholic inventor yam movable. Ntawv Vajtswv cov Gutenberg nyob hauv phau ntawv deuterocanonical thaum twg cov thawj Authorized lossis King James Version hauv 1611.

Cov ntawv Vajtswv yog txhais los ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj Kas Thaus Liv ua German thiab ntau lwm haiv lus ua ntej lub sij hawm ntawv Luther. qhov tseeb, Kevin Orlin Johnson muab sau rau hauv nws phau ntawv, Vim li cas ho Catholics ua ntawd?

"Daim hiob German ntawv txhua yam yog tus ntawv Vajtswv li 381 yog tus mlom uas hu ua Ulfilas; nws txhais nws ua Gothic, Nws yog ib yam German heev ces rov qab. Koj yeej hnov tias Martin Luther yog thawj tug uas tso cov ntawv Vajtswv los tuav lub koom txoos tsis tshua mus pub rau tus vaj-starved, tiam sis qhov obviously dev paus. Txij Ulfilas, muaj lawm ntau tshaj ib txhiab xyoo manuscript lus German Bibles, thiab khoom German sau kawg twenty-one (yog tus Cardinal cuam suav) ua ntej Luther." (Vim li cas ho Catholics ua ntawd?, Phau ntawv Ballantine, 1995, p. 24, n.)

Image of a painting of the Transfiguration of Christ by Paolo VeroneseZoo li cov Christians, Catholics vamkhom tus ntuj plig thaj maum hauv txhais vaj; rau qhov nws nkag siab, ho, tias cov dab lub koomtxoos mus tsheb ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj (saib John 14:26 thiab 16:13). Tus dab guides lub tsev teev ntuj Magisterium hauv infallible txhais vaj, thaum nws ua tus dawb huv writers hauv infallibly composing nws.

Ntau cov-Catholics yuav pom lub tswv yim ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj txoj cai yog ib tug at odds with Vaj tswv txoj cai, tab sis cov Christ assured lub tsev teev ntuj, "Nws qhov uas nws hnov koj hnov kuv, thiab nws uas rejects tau koj rejects kuv, thiab nws leej twg rejects kuv rejects nws uas xa rau kuv" (Luvkas 10:16). Li ntawd, cai Vaj tswv yuav tsis raug muab cais tsis pub cai ntawm nws lub tsev teev ntuj. Christ yog qhov uas lub koom txoos txoj cai thiab tsis raws li cov cai no los ntawm nws nws pom tau los tag nrho nws followers thiab mloog.

Txawm hais tias ntau siv raws nraim li cov cai ntawm cov ntawv Vajtswv, yog qhov tseeb ntawm qhov teeb meem, rau ntau tus ntawv Vajtswv hais li cas nyob li lub chaw txhais lus tus neeg uas.

Neeg dawb huv Peter ceeb toom, Txawm li cas los, "tsis muaj prophecy ntawm vaj yog tus uas tsim kom muaj ib tug txiv txawj txhais, vim tsis muaj prophecy tsis los ntawm cov impulse ntawm txiv neej, tab sis npog txiv neej tawm ntawm tus ntuj plig rau ntawm vaj tswv" (pom nws Tsab ntawv thib ob 1:20-21; haum ntxiv). Peter tseem hais, in reference to kev pov ntawv, that “There are some things in them hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other scriptures. You therefore, beloved, knowing this beforehand, beware lest you be carried away with the error of lawless men and lose your own stability” (also in Peter’s Tsab ntawv thib ob 3:16-17).

For that reason, Catholics are grateful for the nearly-2,000-year, consistent tradition of interpretation and understanding.

  1. “While the Roman Empire subsisted in Europe, the reading of the Scriptures in the Latin tongue, which was the universal language of the empire, prevailed everywhere,” the Reverend Charles Buck, a non-Catholic, acknowledged (“Bible” in Theological Dictionary; Patrick F. O’Hare, The Facts About Luther, rev. ed., Rockford, Illinois: Tan Books and Publishers, Inc., 1987, p. 182). Pope Damasus muaj txhais ua Latin vaj lug kub, universal lus hnub ntawd nws, kom zoo li qub tos cov Christians kawm–zoo li peb–tau ua vaj lug kub muaj nyob hauv internet: kom muaj coob tus neeg tau muaj rau lawv.