(Many dates are approximate.)
1 B.C. – Annunciation of the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary
Mary’s Fiat: “Be it done unto me according to thy word” (Luke 1:38)
1 A.D. – The First Christmas: the Nativity Jesus (Luke 2:7)
30 – Baptism of Christ ( see Matthew 3:13-17)
30 – Start of Christ’s earthly ministry (see John 2:1-11)
32 – Christ Establishes the Papacy:
“He said to them, ‘But who do you say that I am?’ Simon Peter replied, ‘You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.’ And Jesus answered him, ‘Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jona! For flesh and has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. And I tell you, you are Peter [Aramaic, Kepha or Rock], and on this rock [kepha] I will build my church, and the powers of shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven’” (Matthew 16:15-19)
33 – Last Supper (Holy Thursday)
Christ Institutes the Holy Eucharist: “Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, ‘Take, eat; this is my body.’ And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, ‘Drink of it, all of you; for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins’” (Matthew, 26:26-28).
33 – Crucifixion of Christ on Good Friday (Luke, 23:33)
33 – Resurrection of Christ on Easter Sunday (Luke, 24:1-7)
33 – Ascension of Christ, 40 days after Easter (Acts of the Apostles, 1:9)
First Novena Prayer: The disciples return to Upper Room in Jerusalem and pray for nine days.
33 – Pentecost, or the “birthday” of the Church (10 days later) (Acts of the Apostles, 2:1-4)
First Sermon of the Church Age: Saint Peter addresses a universal crowd, including “visitors from Rome” (Acts 2:9-10); about 3,000 converts are baptized (Acts 2:41).
34 – First Christian Martyr: Stoning of Saint Stephen (Acts 7:58)
34 – Conversion of Saint Paul (Saul) of Tarsus after receiving vision of Christ on the road to Damascus (Acts 9:1-22)
34 – Paul meets with Peter in Jerusalem (Acts 9:26-31)
34-35 – Peter’s First Missionary Journey (Acts 9:32)
34 – First Gentile Converts: Gentiles (non-Jews) admitted into the Church after Peter receives a revelation from God (Acts 10:1)
42 – First Use of the Name “Christians”: The community at Antioch (Acts 11:26)
Tradition claims Peter as the first Bishop of Antioch. This is substantiated in the writings of the Early Church Fathers. Describing his meeting with Peter there in 53, Paul writes, “Cephas came to Antioch” (see his Letter to the Galatians, 2:11). It seems improbable this was his first visit, though. In fact, he could have visited as early as 35, having continued northward up the coast from Caesarea Philippi.
42-44 – Herod Agrippa I persecutes the Church (Acts 12:1)
42 – First Apostle to Die: Marytrdom of Saint James the Greater (Acts 12:2)
42 – Peter arrested; miraculously released from prison (Acts 12:3, 6-10)
42 – Peter leaves Jerusalem for “another place” (Acts 12:17)
Saint Luke, the author of the Acts of the Apostles, does not give the details of Peter’s whereabouts, presumably in order to spare him from further persecution. It is likely he journeyed to Antioch briefly, where he consecrated Saint Evodius his successor as Bishop, and then on to Rome to oversee the fledgling community planted there by the converts from Pentecost. Rome likely replaced Jerusalem as the center for his future evangelization efforts.
44 – Herod dies
45 – 100 – Composition of the books of the New Testament
45-48 – Paul’s First Missionary Journey (Acts 13:3 ff.)
48 – Saint Mark composes his Gospel in Rome
“Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome, and laying the foundations of the Church. After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter” (Irenaeus of Lyons, c. 185 A.D., Against Heresies 3:1:1).
49 – Edict of Claudius Caesar expels the Jews from Rome (Acts 18:2)
“Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus [i.e., Christ], he [Claudius] expelled them from Rome” (Suetonius, ca. 130 A.D., Life of Claudius 25:4).
50 – First Ecumenical Council: Council of Jerusalem declares that adherence to the Mosaic Law not required for salvation (Acts 15)