Eucaristia

Why Do Catholics believe the Eucharist is the Body and Blood of Jesus?

Image of The Last Supper by Albrecht BoutsThe short answer is that Catholics believe the Eucharist is the Body and Blood of Jesus because it was taught by Jesus, Ele mesmo, and recorded in the Bible.

On the night He was betrayed, He gathered with His Apostles to celebrate Passover, the ritualistic meal eaten by the Israelites (on the eve of their liberation from bondage in Egypt).

The Passover meal included the flesh of the sacrificial lamb (see Exodus, 12:8). The Last Supper, which took place on the eve of man’s liberation from sin, is the fulfillment of the Passover meal.

On that night, now known as Holy Thursday, Jesus, the Lamb of God, gave His own Flesh and Blood to be eaten by the faithful–sacramentalmente, in the form of Bread and Wine.1

Jehovah’s Witnesses and other groups commonly object to Catholic teaching on the Eucharist on the grounds it violates the Old Testament prohibition against the eating of blood. In Mark’s Gospel 7:18-19, contudo, Jesus removed the burden of the Mosaic dietary restrictions—including the eating of blood—from His followers. At the Council of Jerusalem the Apostles did forbid the eating of blood, though only in particular situations to avoid unnecessarily offending the Jews (ver os Atos dos Apóstolos 15:29 e 21:25).

Pão Tomando, abençoando-, quebrá-lo, e distribuí-lo entre os Apóstolos, jesus said, "Leva, comer; este é o meu corpo " (Mateus 26:26). Em seguida, tomou o cálice, que Ele também abençoou, e deu-lho, dizendo, "Bebida dele, todos vocês; para isto é o meu sangue da aliança, que é derramado por muitos, para remissão dos pecados " (Mateus 26:27-28). Embora Jesus falou muitas vezes metaforicamente durante Seu ministério, neste momento crucial Ele falou claramente. "Este é o meu corpo," Ele disse, without explanation. "Este é o meu sangue." É difícil imaginar como o Senhor poderia ter sido mais direto.

Image of Communion of the Apostles by Justus GhentInstituição da Eucaristia durante a Última Ceia de Jesus cumpre a Sua famosa Pão da Vida sermão, which is recorded in the sixth chapter of the Gospel of John. Este sermão é prefaciado pela multiplicação de pães e peixes, by which thousands are miraculously fed from a tiny amount of food (veja John 6:4 although that miracle appears in all four Gospels). This event is a Eucharistic metaphor, occurring as it does during Passover and having been effected by the same formula Jesus would later use at the Last Supper—taking the loaves, dando graças, e distribuí-los (João 6:11). Quando o povo retornar no dia seguinte para exigir um sinal dEle, lembrando que os seus antepassados ​​tinham sido dado o maná no deserto (as in Exodus 16:14), Jesus replies, "Verdadeiramente, verdadeiramente, Eu digo a você, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven; my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven, and gives life to the world” (João 6:32-33).

"Senhor, give us this bread always,” they cry (João 6:34).

"Eu sou o pão da vida,” He responds; “he who comes to me shall not hunger, e quem crê em mim nunca terá sede " (6:35). Apesar de suas palavras fazem os judeus inquieto, Jesus continua inabalável, Seu discurso crescendo constantemente mais gráfico:

47 "Verdadeiramente, verdadeiramente, Eu digo a você, he who believes has eternal life.

48 Eu sou o pão da vida.

49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, e eles morreram.

50 This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that a man may eat of it and not die.

51 I am the living bread which came down from heaven; se alguém comer deste pão, ele vai viver para sempre; e the bread which I shall give for the life of the world is my flesh” (6:47-51; grifo do autor).

Verse 51 contains indisputable proof that Jesus is not speaking figuratively, for He identifies the Bread which must be eaten as the same Flesh that would suffer and die on the Cross. To assert that in referring to His Flesh in this passage He is speaking symbolically is to say the Flesh that suffered and died on the Cross was merely a symbol, for they are one and the same!2

"Como pode este dar-nos a sua carne a comer?” the people ask (6:52).

Apesar de sua consternação, Jesus proceeds all the more emphatically:

"Verdadeiramente, verdadeiramente, Eu digo a você, se não comerdes a carne do Filho do Homem e não beberdes o seu sangue, não tereis a vida em vós; Quem come a minha carne e bebe o meu sangue tem a vida eterna, e eu o ressuscitarei no último dia. Pois a minha carne é verdadeiramente comida, eo meu sangue é verdadeiramente bebida. Quem come a minha carne e bebe o meu sangue permanece em mim, e eu nele. Assim como o Pai que me enviou vive, e eu vivo pelo Pai, assim aquele que Me come viverá por causa de mim. Este é o pão que desceu do céu, não como os vossos pais comeram e morreram; Quem come deste pão viverá para sempre " (6:53-58; grifo do autor).

A celebração da Eucaristia foi central na vida dos primeiros cristãos, que "perseveravam na doutrina e na comunhão dos apóstolos, na fração do pão e nas orações " (See the Acts of the Apostles 2:42). Note that “The breaking of bread and the prayers” refers to the Liturgy.

Only a few years after the death of the last Apostle, Santo Inácio de Antioquia (d. ca. 107) described the Liturgy the same way, denouncing heretics for abstaining “from the Eucharist and from prayer” (Carta aos Smyrnaeans 6:2). That the early Church, além disso, took Sunday, the day of the Resurrection, as her Sabbath is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles 20:7, que diz, “On the first day of the week, … we were gathered together to break bread …” (cf. Didaqué 14; Justin the Martyr, Primeira Apologia 67).

Saint Paul identifies both the manna and the rock that spew forth water for the Israelites as Eucharistic metaphors. "Todos comeram do mesmo alimento sobrenatural e todos beberam da mesma bebida sobrenatural," ele escreve. "Para eles beberam da Rocha sobrenatural que os seguia, ea pedra era Cristo " (See his First Letter to the Corinthians10:3-4 as well as the Book of Revelations 2:17). He goes on to admonish the Corinthians for their lack of reverence in receiving the Eucharist, escrevendo:

11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread

24 e quando ele tinha dado graças, he broke it, e disse, This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.

25 In the same way also the cup, after supper, dizendo, This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Faça isso, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.

26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

27 Quem quer que, portanto, comer o pão ou beber o cálice do Senhor indignamente será réu do corpo e do sangue do Senhor.

28 Deixe um homem examine a si mesmo, e assim coma deste pão e beber o copo.

29 Para quem come e bebe sem discernir o corpo come e bebe a própria condenação.

30 É por isso que muitos de vocês estão fracos e doentes, and some have died (veja Mateus 5:23-24, demais).

Per verse 27, to receive the Eucharist unworthily is to sin against the Body and Blood of the Lord. Assim, vale a pena perguntar: how could the unworthy reception of ordinary bread and wine amount to a sin against the Body and Blood of Jesus? Paul says even that the impious reception of the Eucharist is the reason “why many of you are weak and ill, e alguns já morreram " (em. 30).

It is only fitting that the most famous early Patristic (Church Father) statements on the Real Presence come from Saint Ignatius of Antioch, who learned the Faith seated at the feet of the Evangelist John. In about the year A.D. 107, using the Church’s Eucharistic teaching to defend the Incarnation against the Docetists, who denied Jesus had truly come in the flesh, Ignatius wrote:

Take note of those who hold heterodox opinions on the grace of Jesus Christ which has come to us, e ver como suas opiniões são contrárias ao espírito de Deus. ... Eles abster de Eucaristia e da oração, porque eles não confessam que a Eucaristia é a carne de nosso Salvador Jesus Cristo, Carne que sofreu por nossos pecados e que o Pai, em Sua bondade, raised up again (Carta aos Smyrnaeans 6:2; 7:1).

O mesmo corpo que sofreu e morreu na cruz por nossos pecados e retornou dos mortos, como Inácio explicou, está presente para nós na Santa Eucaristia (veja John 6:51).

São Justino Mártir, writing around 150, disse o Pão eucarístico e do Vinho são recebidos "não como pão comum, nem bebida comum,"Eles são para" a carne eo sangue de Jesus que encarnou " (Primeira Apologia 66).

Em cerca de 185, Santo Ireneu de Lião, cujo professor São Policarpo de Esmirna (d. ca. 156) Também sabia John, falou da Eucaristia na defesa da ressurreição corporal contra o gnosticismo. "Se o corpo não ser salvo,"Argumentou o Santo, "então, de fato, nem que o Senhor nos redimir com o Seu Sangue; e nem é o cálice da Eucaristia, a partilhar do Seu Sangue nem é o pão que partimos a partilhar do Seu Corpo (1 Cor. 10:16)" (Contra as Heresias 5:2:2).

Origen remarked of the Eucharist around the middle of the third century, “Formerly, in an obscure way, there was manna for food; now, contudo, in full view, there is the True Food, the Flesh of the Word of God, as he himself says: ‘My Flesh is true food, and my Blood is true drink’ (João 6:56)" (Homilies on Numbers 7:2).

Da mesma forma, Saint Cyprian of Carthage (d. 258) escreveu:

We ask that this bread be given us daily (cf. Matt. 6:11), so that we who are in Christ and daily receive the Eucharist as the food of salvation, may not, by falling into some more grievous sin and then abstaining from communicating, be withheld from the heavenly Bread, and be separated from Christ’s Body. … He Himself warns us, dizendo, “Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you shall not have life in you” (João 6:54) (The Lord’s Prayer 18).

  1. The blood of the Passover lamb was not consumed. De fato, it was forbidden for Israel to consume the blood of any animal, as blood represented the life force of the animal, which belonged to God alone (see Genesis, 9:4, e Levítico, 7:26). Inversamente, in the Eucharist, God wishes to share His Blood, His very Life, with us to nourish us sacramentally. In this ineffable Gift we become one flesh and blood, one spirit, with God (veja o Evangelho de João 6:56-57 and the Book of Revelations, 3:20).
  2. Jesus does use symbolic language in reference to Himself elsewhere in John’s Evangelho, calling Himself “the door” and “the vine,” for example (10:7 e 15:5, respectivamente). In these other instances, contudo, He does not apply nearly the same emphasis to His words that He does in João 6, in which He repeats Himself again and again with increasing clarity. Nor do these other sayings engender controversy among the listeners the way His words in João 6 do. Além disso, the Evangelist John actually informs us Jesus is speaking figuratively in João 10:6, something he does not do in the sixth chapter.