1508 – 1512 – Michelangelo Buonarroti paints ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome

1517 – Martin Luther initiates the Protestant Revolt

He would later lament, “There are almost as many sects and beliefs as there are heads; this one will not admit Baptism; that one rejects the Sacrament of the altar; another places another world between the present one and the day of judgment; some teach that Jesus Christ is not God. There is not an individual, ຢ່າງ​ໃດ​ກໍ​ຕາມ, clownish he may be, who does not claim to be inspired by the Holy Ghost, and who does not put forth as prophecies his ravings and dreams” (De Wette 3:61).

1531 – Mary appears to Saint Juan Diego in Mexico—nine million Aztecs converted

1535 – Martyrdom of Saints John Cardinal Fisher and Thomas More in England under King Henry VIII

1537 – Pope Paul III denounces the mistreatment of Native Americans (Sublimis Deus)

1538 – Henry VIII breaks England away from the Church over the Pope’s refusal to grant him a decree of nullity

1539 – Saint Ignatius of Loyola founds the Jesuit Order

1545 – 1563 – Council of Trent addresses the Reformation

1553 – 1558 – Protestants persecuted under Queen Mary I of England

1558 – 1603 – Catholics persecuted under Queen Elizabeth I of England

1565 – Saint Teresa of Avila, Life

1565 – Oldest European Settlement in America: Saint Augustine, Florida

1571 – Battle of Lepanto

Rome is miraculously saved from invasion by a massive Muslim fleet. The victory is attributed to Pope Saint Pius V’s request for all Christians to pray the Rosary.

1582 – Douay-Rheims Bible: translation of New Testament in English completed

1597 – Martyrs of Japan: twenty-six crucified, Nagasaki

1603 – Saint Martin de Porres enters the Dominican Order

1610 – Douay-Rheims Bible: translation of Old Testament in English completed

1617 – Saint Vincent de Paul establishes Confraternity of Charity

1633 – The Galileo Affair

Astronomer Galileo Galilei is censured by the Inquisition for asserting his findings on the solar system disprove the Bible. He is not tortured nor imprisoned, but sentenced to house arrest. The case does not impact Papal Infallibility as it primarily concerns science and not faith and morals.

1634 – Founding of Maryland, American Catholic colony

1640 – Rise of Jansenism, religious rigorism in the Church

1642 – 1649 – North American Martyrs: Saints Isaac Jogues, John de Brebeuf, and companions

1673 – Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque receives vision of the Sacred Heart of Jesus

1676 – Baptism of Saint Kateri Tekakwitha, the “Lilly of the Mohawks”

1682 – Four Gallican Articles denounce Papal authority in France

1692 – Salem Witch Trials, Massachusetts

1693 – Gallican Articles withdrawn

1767 – 1782 – Blessed Junipero Serra and companions establish twenty-one Indian Missions in California, including San Diego, San Antonio, San Francisco, Santa Clara, and Santa Barbara

1775 – 1783 – American Revolution

1789 – 1799 – French Revolution, culmination of atheistic fervor in Europe

1789 – Founding of Georgetown, first U.S. Catholic college

1789 – 1815 – John Carroll, first U.S. bishop, works to establish religious rights for Catholics

1790 – President George Washington addresses letter to American Catholics thanking them for their patriotism and service during Revolutionary War

1792 – 1801 – Persecution of the Church in France

1801 – French Concordat: Catholicism re-established in France

1805 – First Native-born American Canonized Saint: Conversion of Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton

1809 – 1814 – Napoleon’s persecution of Pope Pius VII

1829 – Catholic Emancipation Act in England

1830 – Mary appears to Saint Catherine Laboure, reveals the design of “Miraculous Medal,” Paris

1839 – Pope Gregory XVI condemns the enslavement of blacks (In Supremo)

1854 – Blessed Pope Pius IX defines dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Mary (Ineffabilis Deus)

1857 – Saint John Bosco founds the Salesian Order

1858 – Mary appears to Saint Bernadette, Lourdes

1869 – 1870 – First Vatican Council defines dogma of Papal Infallibility

1878 – Blessed John Henry Newman, Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine

1885 – 1886 – Martyrs of Uganda: Saints Charles Lwanga, Joseph Mkasa, and companions

1888 – Saint Therese of Lisieux, the “Little Flower,” enters convent

1914 – 1918 – First World War

1917 – Mary appears at Fatima; prophesies rise of Communism in Russia

1917 – Communist uprising in Russia

1918 – Saint Pio of Pietrelcina receives the stigmata

1927 – Martyrdom of Blessed Miguel Pro

1936 – 1938 – Saint Faustina, ຄວາມເມດຕາອັນສູງສົ່ງໃນຈິດວິນຍານຂອງຂ້າພະເຈົ້າ

1939 – 1945 – Second World War

1941 – Martyrdom of Saint Maximilian Kolbe at Auschwitz

1942 – Martyrdom of Saint Edith Stein at Auschwitz

1948 – Blessed Teresa of Calcutta begins work among the poor

1950 – Pope Pius XII defines dogma of the Assumption (Munificentissimus Deus)

1960 – John F. Kennedy, first U.S. Catholic president

1962 – 1965 – Second Vatican Council defines nature of the Church and her presence in the modern world

1989 – Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe

1995 - 4 million pilgrims celebrate Mass with Pope John Paul II at World Youth Day in Manila, Philippines

1999 – Lutheran World Federation and representatives of the Catholic Church co-sign statement of agreement on the doctrine of Justification (Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification)

2000 – Great Jubilee Year

2001 – Muslim extremists destroy World Trade Center in New York killing thousands—Father Mychal Judge, first official victim, dies while administering last rites

2002 – Pope John Paul II proposes the Luminous Mysteries of the Holy Rosary, focusing on key events from Christ’s earthly ministry (Rosarium Virginis Mariae)

2005 – Between two and four million mourners attend funeral of John Paul II (the Great) in Rome