Kepausan

Who is the pope, why is he the leader of Christ’s Church on earth, and from where does his authority derive?
Saint Peter Receives the Key from Christ by Lorenzo VenezianoOur current pope, Pope Benedict XVI, like every pope before him, is a direct successor of the first pope, Saint Peter, who was the first Bishop of Rome.

Saint Peter received his authority to lead the Church directly from Jesus.

Among his many interactions with Jesus, Peter is remembered for his exchange with Christ on the road to Caesarea Philippi, direkodkan dalam Injil Matius (Bab 16).

When Jesus asked the Disciples, “Who do you say that I am?”, Peter answered for them, replying, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God” (16:15-16). seterusnya, Yesus berkata kepadanya:, “Berbahagialah kalian, Simon Bar-Jona! Untuk daging dan darah tidak menurunkan kepadamu, melainkan Bapa-Ku yang di syurga” (17).

The question of Jesusidentity was definitively answered for His followers by Peter with divine assistance. Jesus went on to say,

“Dan Aku berkata kepadamu, anda Peter, dan ke atas batu ini saya akan membina gereja saya, and the powers of death shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kindgom of heaven, dan apa yang kamu ikat di dunia ini akan terikat di sorga, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven” (18-19).

This passage provides the main Biblical proof for Peter’s primacy among the Apostles. Today’s Catholic bishops are the spiritual descendants of the Apostles. The Bishop of Rome (or the Pope) is the successor of Peter. He retains Peter’s primacy among the bishops.

The name “Peter” comes from the Aramaic word Kepha (atau Cephas), meaningRock.Jesus chose to give the Apostle Simon this new name at Caesarea Philippi for symbolic reasons. The distinctive feature of the area is a large outcropping of rock, upon which at that time the ruins of a pagan temple stood. It was here that Jesus chose to proclaim His plans to build a new Church on Peter that would not succumb to the passage of time.

Sudah tentu, this passage in no way undermines our belief in Christ as the true Foundation of the Church (melihat Surat Pertama kepada Korintus 3:11). Jesus did not mean to imply Peter would somehow replace Him as the Rock of the Church, but that he would merely represent Him as such. As Saint Francis de Sales put it,

Although [Peter] was a rock, yet he was not yang rock; for Christ is truly the immovable rock, but Peter on account of the rock. Christ indeed gives his own prerogatives to others, yet he gives them not losing them himself, he holds them nonetheless. He is a rock, and he made a rock; what is his, he communicates to his servants (Controversies).

Painting of Saint Peter by Francesco del CossaIt is the same with Jesuspromise to give Peter the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Christ is the King of Heaven, and the keys belong to Him alone (Book of Revelations, 3:7).

In entrusting the keys to Peter, Jesus was referring back to the Davidic custom by which the king, upon leaving the city, would appoint his royal steward overseer of the kingdom in his absence, lending him the keys to its gates (melihat Yesaya 22:22). Dalam Matthew 16:19, Christ the King appoints His steward, Peter, to oversee the Church, kerajaan-Nya di bumi, tanpa kehadiran-Nya.

The termsbind” dan “loosein the passage above indicate that the authority given to Peter to declare certain things permissible or forbidden to the earthly faithful. Peter’s decisions on these matters, lebih-lebih lagi, shall be confirmed in heaven. If God is going to confirm the decisions of Peter, seorang yang berdosa, then obviously Peter must be given a special grace to prevent him from issuing commands contrary to the will of God. This preventive grace is infallibility.

The Church teaches that the Pope, as Peter’s successor, retains this infallibility.

This is not a claim that the Pope is without sin—infallibility has nothing to do with conduct, sebenarnya—rather it is the belief that when teaching definitively on a matter of faith and morals he will be guarded by the Holy Spirit against teaching error.

Infallibility does not mean everything the Pope says or writes is without error, but only those things said ex jawatan tinggi (Latin, “from the chair”). Ex cathedra refers to the Chair of Peter, itu adalah, to the seat of apostolic authority. The concept of a primary seat of authority comes from the Old Testament, di mana Musa mula mengadili rakyat, settling their religious disputes (melihat Kitab Keluaran 18:13).

Musa’ authority, terlalu, was handed down through a line of successors. The Seat of Moses remained active until the time of Christ, as the Jesus, Diri-Nya, berkata, “The scribes and Pharisees sit on Mosesseat; supaya mengamalkan dan mematuhi apa sahaja yang mereka memberitahu anda, tetapi apa yang mereka perbuat; untuk mereka mengajar, but do not practice” (Matthew 23:1-3). Peter and the Popes fulfill a similar role in the New Covenant, serving as Christ’s earthly representative through whom God speaks to the people to resolve religious disputes and maintain unity among the faithful.

This special role is seen in the Biblical account of Peter’s actions at the Council of Jerusalem, at which the Apostles are called to decide whether or not adherence to the Mosaic Law is required for salvation. It is Peter who ends the dispute, teaching the assembly on doctrine (melihat Kisah Para Rasul, 15:7). His successors have maintained this role in the Church throughout the ages.

Interestingly, those who have rejected the Pope’s role have suffered doctrinal confusion and ongoing (and accelerating) division, which is evidenced by the explosion of non-Catholic, Christian sects.

Early Christian Historical References to the Papacy:

Pope Saint Clement I, the fourth Bishop of Rome, Letter to the Corinthians, circa AD 96:

Accept our counsel and you will have nothing to regret. … If anyone disobey the things which have been said by Him (iaitu, Tuhan) melalui kami (iaitu, the Church of Rome), let them know that they will involve themselves in transgression and in no small danger. … You will afford us joy and gladness if, being obedient to the things which we have written through the Holy Spirit, you will root out the wicked passion of jealousy, in accord with the plea for peace and concord which we have made in this letter (58, 59, 63).

Saint Ignatius, the Bishop of Antioch, Surat kepada orang-orang Rom, c. A.D. 107:

Ignatius, also called Theophorus, to the Church that has found mercy in the greatness of the Most High Father and in Jesus Christ, His only Son; to the Church beloved and enlightened after the love of Jesus Christ, Tuhan kami, by the will of Him that has willed everything which is; to the Church also which olds the presidency, in the location of the country of the Romans, worthy of God, worthy of honor, worthy of blessing, worthy of praise, worthy of success, worthy of sanctification, dan, because you hold the presidency in love, named after Christ and after the Father. … You have envied no one, tetapi orang lain yang anda telah mengajar. I desire only that what you have enjoined in your instructions may remain in force (alamat, 3).

Saint Irenaeus, the Bishop of Lyons, penentangan bidaah, c. A.D. 185:

But since it would be too long to enumerate in such a volume as this the successions of all the Churches, kita akan terus membingungkan semua orang-orang yang, dalam apa jua cara, whether through self-satisfaction or vainglory, or through blindness and wicked opinion, assemble other than where it is proper, dengan menunjukkan di sini yang successions daripada biskop Gereja yang paling besar dan paling kuno diketahui oleh semua, diasaskan dan dianjurkan di Rome oleh kedua-dua Rasul paling mulia, Peter dan Paul, bahawa Gereja yang mempunyai tradisi dan kepercayaan yang turun kepada kami setelah mengumumkan kepada manusia oleh para Rasul. Sebab dengan Gereja ini, kerana asal unggul, semua Churches mesti bersetuju, itu adalah, semua orang yang setia di seluruh dunia; dan ia adalah dalam dia yang setia di mana-mana telah mengekalkan tradisi Kerasulan. ...

The blessed Apostles, telah mengasaskan dan membina Gereja, mereka menyerahkan jawatan keuskupan untuk Linus. Paul makes mention of this Linus in the Epistle to Timothy (4:21). Bagi beliau berjaya Anacletus; dan sesudahnya, di tempat ketiga dari para Rasul, Clement telah dipilih untuk keuskupan yang. Beliau telah melihat yang diberkati Rasul dan berkenalan dengan mereka. Boleh dikatakan bahawa dia masih mendengar gema pemberitaan para Rasul, dan mempunyai tradisi mereka sebelum matanya. Dan bukan hanya dia, sebab banyak orang yang masih tinggal yang telah diarahkan oleh para Rasul.

In the time of Clement, tiada perselisihan kecil telah timbul di kalangan saudara-saudara di Corinth, Gereja di Rome menghantar surat yang sangat kuat kepada Corinthians, menegur mereka kepada keamanan dan memperbaharui iman mereka. ... Untuk Clement ini, Evaristus berjaya; dan Alexander berjaya Evaristus. Kemudian, keenam selepas para Rasul, Sixtus telah dilantik; selepas dia, Telesphorus, yang juga gilang-gemilang syahid. kemudian Hyginus; selepas dia, Pius; dan sesudahnya, Anicetus. Soter berjaya Anicetus, dan sekarang, di tempat yang kedua belas selepas Rasul, yang banyak keuskupan yang telah jatuh kepada Eleutherus. Dalam usaha ini, dan dengan ajaran para Rasul diturunkan di dalam Gereja, pemberitaan kebenaran telah sampai kepada kita. In the time of Clement, tiada perselisihan kecil telah timbul di kalangan saudara-saudara di Corinth, Gereja di Rome menghantar surat yang sangat kuat kepada Corinthians, menegur mereka kepada keamanan dan memperbaharui iman mereka. ... Untuk Clement ini, Evaristus berjaya; dan Alexander berjaya Evaristus. Kemudian, keenam selepas para Rasul, Sixtus telah dilantik; selepas dia, Telesphorus, yang juga gilang-gemilang syahid. kemudian Hyginus; selepas dia, Pius; dan sesudahnya, Anicetus. Soter berjaya Anicetus, dan sekarang, di tempat yang kedua belas selepas Rasul, yang banyak keuskupan yang telah jatuh kepada Eleutherus. Dalam usaha ini, dan dengan ajaran para Rasul diturunkan di dalam Gereja, pemberitaan kebenaran telah sampai kepada kita (3:3:2-3)